Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results
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Integrin-based adhesion compartmentalizes ALK3 of the BMPRII to control cell adhesion and migration.

blue iLID C2C12 EpH4 REF52 SYF Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape Transgene expression
J Cell Biol, 7 Oct 2022 DOI: 10.1083/jcb.202107110 Link to full text
Abstract: The spatial organization of cell-surface receptors is fundamental for the coordination of biological responses to physical and biochemical cues of the extracellular matrix. How serine/threonine kinase receptors, ALK3-BMPRII, cooperate with integrins upon BMP2 to drive cell migration is unknown. Whether the dynamics between integrins and BMP receptors intertwine in space and time to guide adhesive processes is yet to be elucidated. We found that BMP2 stimulation controls the spatial organization of BMPRs by segregating ALK3 from BMPRII into β3 integrin-containing focal adhesions. The selective recruitment of ALK3 to focal adhesions requires β3 integrin engagement and ALK3 activation. BMP2 controls the partitioning of immobilized ALK3 within and outside focal adhesions according to single-protein tracking and super-resolution imaging. The spatial control of ALK3 in focal adhesions by optogenetics indicates that ALK3 acts as an adhesive receptor by eliciting cell spreading required for cell migration. ALK3 segregation from BMPRII in integrin-based adhesions is a key aspect of the spatio-temporal control of BMPR signaling.

Cell division in tissues enables macrophage infiltration.

blue CRY2/CIB1 D. melanogaster in vivo Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
bioRxiv, 20 Apr 2021 DOI: 10.1101/2021.04.19.438995 Link to full text
Abstract: Migration of cells through diverse tissues is essential for development, immune response and cancer metastasis. To reach their destination, cells must overcome the resistance imposed by complex microenvironments, composed of neighboring cells and extracellular matrix (ECM). While migration through pores and tracks in ECM has been well studied, little is known about cellular traversal into confining cell-dense tissues. Here by combining quantitative live imaging with genetic and optogenetic perturbations we identify a crucial role for cell division during cell migration into tissues. We find that normal embryonic invasion by Drosophila macrophages between the ectoderm and mesoderm absolutely requires division of an epithelial ectodermal cell at the site of entry. Dividing ectodermal cells disassemble ECM attachment formed by Integrin-mediated focal adhesions next to mesodermal cells, allowing macrophages to move their nuclei ahead and invade. Decreasing or increasing the frequency of ectodermal division correspondingly either hinders or promotes macrophage invasion. Reducing the levels of focal adhesion components in the ectoderm allows macrophage entry even in the absence of division. Our study demonstrates the critical importance of division at the entry site to enable in vivo cell invasion by relieving the steric impediment caused by focal adhesions. We thus provide a new perspective on the regulation of cellular movement into tissues.

Optogenetic-based Localization of Talin to the Plasma Membrane Promotes Activation of β3 Integrins.

blue CRY2/CIB1 CHO murine lung endothelial cells
J Biol Chem, 15 Apr 2021 DOI: 10.1016/j.jbc.2021.100675 Link to full text
Abstract: Interaction of talin with the cytoplasmic tails of integrin β triggers integrin activation, leading to an increase of integrin affinity/avidity for extracellular ligands. In talin knockout mice, loss of talin interaction with platelet integrin αIIbβ3 causes a severe hemostatic defect, and loss of talin interaction with endothelial cell integrin αVβ3 affects angiogenesis. In normal cells, talin is auto-inhibited and localized in the cytoplasm. Here we employed an optogenetic platform to assess whether recruitment of full-length talin to the plasma membrane was sufficient to induce integrin activation. A dimerization module (CRY2 fused to the N-terminus of talin; CIBN-CAAX) responsive to 450 nm (blue) light was inserted into CHO cells and endothelial cells also expressing αIIbβ3 or αVβ3, respectively. Thus, exposure of the cells to blue light caused a rapid and reversible recruitment of CRY2-talin to the CIBN-CAAX-decorated plasma membrane. This resulted in β3 integrin activation in both cell types, as well as increasing migration of the endothelial cells. However, membrane recruitment of talin was not sufficient for integrin activation, as membrane-associated Rap1-GTP was also required. Moreover, talin mutations that interfered with its direct binding to Rap1 abrogated β3 integrin activation. Altogether, these results define a role for the plasma membrane recruitment of talin in β3 integrin activation, and they suggest a nuanced sequence of events thereafter involving Rap1-GTP.

Single-Protein Tracking to Study Protein Interactions During Integrin-Based Migration.

blue CRY2/CIB1 MEF-1 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Methods Mol Biol, 20 Nov 2020 DOI: 10.1007/978-1-0716-0962-0_8 Link to full text
Abstract: Cell migration is a complex biophysical process which involves the coordination of molecular assemblies including integrin-dependent adhesions, signaling networks and force-generating cytoskeletal structures incorporating both actin polymerization and myosin activity. During the last decades, proteomic studies have generated impressive protein-protein interaction maps, although the subcellular location, duration, strength, sequence, and nature of these interactions are still concealed. In this chapter we describe how recent developments in superresolution microscopy (SRM) and single-protein tracking (SPT) start to unravel protein interactions and actions in subcellular molecular assemblies driving cell migration.

Turning Cell Adhesions ON or OFF with High Spatiotemporal Precision Using the Green Light Responsive Protein CarH.

green TtCBD MCF7 Control of cell-cell / cell-material interactions Extracellular optogenetics
Chemistry, 9 Apr 2020 DOI: 10.1002/chem.202001238 Link to full text
Abstract: Spatiotemporal control of integrin-mediated cell adhesions to extracellular matrix regulates cell behavior with has numerous implications for biotechnological applications. In this work, two approaches for regulating cell adhesions in space and time with high precision are reported, both of which utilize green light. In the first design, CarH, which is a tetramer in the dark, is used to mask cRGD adhesion-peptides on a surface. Upon green light illumination, the CarH tetramer dissociates into its monomers, revealing the adhesion peptide so that cells can adhere. In the second design, the RGD motif is incorporated into the CarH protein tetramer such that cells can adhere to surfaces functionalized with this protein. The cell adhesions can be disrupted with green light, due to the disassembly of the CarH-RGD protein. Both designs allow for photoregulation with noninvasive visible light and open new possibilities to investigate the dynamical regulation of cell adhesions in cell biology.

Physical Plasma Membrane Perturbation Using Subcellular Optogenetics Drives Integrin-Activated Cell Migration.

blue CRY2/CIB1 iLID RAW264.7 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
ACS Synth Biol, 22 Feb 2019 DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.8b00356 Link to full text
Abstract: Cells experience physical deformations to the plasma membrane that can modulate cell behaviors like migration. Understanding the molecular basis for how physical cues affect dynamic cellular responses requires new approaches that can physically perturb the plasma membrane with rapid, reversible, subcellular control. Here we present an optogenetic approach based on light-inducible dimerization that alters plasma membrane properties by recruiting cytosolic proteins at high concentrations to a target site. Surprisingly, this polarized accumulation of proteins in a cell induces directional amoeboid migration in the opposite direction. Consistent with known effects of constraining high concentrations of proteins to a membrane in vitro, there is localized curvature and tension decrease in the plasma membrane. Integrin activity, sensitive to mechanical forces, is activated in this region. Localized mechanical activation of integrin with optogenetics allowed simultaneous imaging of the molecular and cellular response, helping uncover a positive feedback loop comprising SFK- and ERK-dependent RhoA activation, actomyosin contractility, rearward membrane flow, and membrane tension decrease underlying this mode of cell migration.

Photo‐ECM: A Blue Light Photoswitchable Synthetic Extracellular Matrix Protein for Reversible Control over Cell–Matrix Adhesion.

blue AsLOV2 in vitro Control of cell-cell / cell-material interactions Extracellular optogenetics
Adv Biosyst, 29 Jan 2019 DOI: 10.1002/adbi.201800302 Link to full text
Abstract: The dynamic and spatiotemporal control of integrin‐mediated cell adhesion to RGD motifs in its extracellular matrix (ECM) is important for understating cell biology and biomedical applications because cell adhesion fundamentally regulates cellular behavior. Herein, the first photoswitchable synthetic ECM protein, Photo‐ECM, based on the blue light switchable protein LOV2 is engineered. The Photo‐ECM protein includes a RGD sequence, which is hidden in the folded LOV2 protein structure in the dark and is exposed under blue light so that integrins can bind and cells can adhere. The switchable presentation of the RGD motif allows to reversibly mediate and modulate integrin‐based cell adhesions using noninvasive blue light. With this protein cell adhesions in live cells could be reversed and the dynamics at the cellular level is observed. Hence, the Photo‐ECM opens a new possibility to investigate the spatiotemporal regulation of cell adhesions in cell biology and is the first step toward a genetically encoded and light‐responsive ECM.

Optogenetic control of integrin-matrix interaction.

red PhyB/PIF6 HEK293T HeLa MCF7 Signaling cascade control Control of cell-cell / cell-material interactions Extracellular optogenetics
Commun Biol, 8 Jan 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s42003-018-0264-7 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic approaches have gathered momentum in precisely modulating and interrogating cellular signalling and gene expression. The use of optogenetics on the outer cell surface to interrogate how cells receive stimuli from their environment, however, has so far not reached its full potential. Here we demonstrate the development of an optogenetically regulated membrane receptor-ligand pair exemplified by the optically responsive interaction of an integrin receptor with the extracellular matrix. The system is based on an integrin engineered with a phytochrome-interacting factor domain (OptoIntegrin) and a red light-switchable phytochrome B-functionalized matrix (OptoMatrix). This optogenetic receptor-ligand pair enables light-inducible and -reversible cell-matrix interaction, as well as the controlled activation of downstream mechanosensory signalling pathways. Pioneering the application of optogenetic switches in the extracellular environment of cells, this OptoMatrix–OptoIntegrin system may serve as a blueprint for rendering matrix–receptor interactions amendable to precise control with light.

Optogenetic control of focal adhesion kinase signaling.

blue CRY2/CRY2 HEK293 HEK293T HeLa Signaling cascade control
Cell Signal, 23 Oct 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.cellsig.2017.10.012 Link to full text
Abstract: Focal adhesion kinase (FAK) integrates signaling from integrins, growth factor receptors and mechanical stress to control cell adhesion, motility, survival and proliferation. Here, we developed a single-component, photo-activatable FAK, termed optoFAK, by using blue light-induced oligomerization of cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) to activate FAK-CRY2 fusion proteins. OptoFAK functions uncoupled from physiological stimuli and activates downstream signaling rapidly and reversibly upon blue light exposure. OptoFAK stimulates SRC creating a positive feedback loop on FAK activation, facilitating phosphorylation of paxillin and p130Cas in adherent cells. In detached cells or in mechanically stressed adherent cells, optoFAK is autophosphorylated upon exposure to blue light, however, downstream signaling is hampered indicating that the accessibility to these substrates is disturbed. OptoFAK may prove to be a useful tool to study the biological function of FAK in growth factor and integrin signaling, tension-mediated focal adhesion maturation or anoikis and could additionally serve as test system for kinase inhibitors.

Optogenetic interrogation of integrin αVβ3 function in endothelial cells.

blue TULIP murine lung endothelial cells Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
J Cell Sci, 1 Sep 2017 DOI: 10.1242/jcs.205203 Link to full text
Abstract: αVβ3 is reported to promote angiogenesis in some model systems but not in others. Here we used optogenetics to study effects of αVβ3 interaction with the intracellular adapter, kindlin-2, on endothelial cell functions potentially relevant to angiogenesis. Since interaction of kindlin-2 with αVβ3 requires the C-terminal three residues of the β3 cytoplasmic tail (Arg-Gly-Thr; RGT), optogenetic probes LOVpep and ePDZ1 were fused to β3ΔRGT-GFP and mCherry-kindlin2, respectively, and expressed in β3-null microvascular endothelial cells. Exposure of the cells to 450 nm (blue) light caused rapid and specific interaction of kindlin-2 with αVβ3 as assessed by immunofluorescence and TIRF microscopy, and it led to increased endothelial cell migration, podosome formation and angiogenic sprouting. Analyses of kindlin-2 mutants indicated that interaction of kindlin-2 with other kindlin-2 binding partners, including c-Src, actin, integrin-linked kinase and phosphoinositides, were also likely necessary for these endothelial cell responses. Thus, kindlin-2 promotes αVβ3-dependent angiogenic functions of endothelial cells through its simultaneous interactions with β3 and several other binding partners. Optogenetic approaches should find further use in clarifying spatiotemporal aspects of vascular cell biology.
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