Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 results
1.

Split Cas9, not hairs - advancing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technology.

blue LOV domains Review
Biotechnol J, 5 Jan 2018 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201700432 Link to full text
Abstract: The discovery that the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system can be translated into mammalian cells continues to have an unprecedented impact on the biomedical research community, as it largely facilitates efforts to experimentally interrogate or therapeutically modify the cellular genome. In particular, CRISPR promises the ability to correct disease-associated genetic defects, or to target and destroy invading foreign DNA, in a simple, efficient and selective manner directly in affected human cells or tissues. Here, we highlight a set of exciting new strategies that aim at further increasing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technologies, by reducing the size of Cas9 expression cassettes and thus enhancing their compatibility with viral gene delivery vectors. Specifically, we discuss the concept of splitCas9 whereby the Cas9 holo-protein is segregated into two parts that are expressed individually and reunited in the cell by various means, including use of (i) the gRNA as a scaffold for Cas9 assembly, (ii) the rapamycin-controlled FKBP/FRB system, (iii) the light-regulated Magnet system, or (iv) inteins. We describe how these avenues, despite pursuing the identical aim, differ in critical features comprising the extent of spatio-temporal control of CRISPR activity, and discuss additional improvements to their efficiency or specificity that should foster their clinical translation.
2.

Optogenetic control of signaling in mammalian cells.

blue cyan red UV BLUF domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Biotechnol J, 12 Sep 2014 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201400077 Link to full text
Abstract: Molecular signals are sensed by their respective receptors and information is transmitted and processed by a sophisticated intracellular network controlling various biological functions. Optogenetic tools allow the targeting of specific signaling nodes for a precise spatiotemporal control of downstream effects. These tools are based on photoreceptors such as phytochrome B (PhyB), cryptochrome 2, or light-oxygen-voltage-sensing domains that reversibly bind to specific interaction partners in a light-dependent manner. Fusions of a protein of interest to the photoreceptor or their interaction partners may enable the control of the protein function by light-mediated dimerization, a change of subcellular localization, or due to photocaging/-uncaging of effectors. In this review, we summarize the photoreceptors and the light-based mechanisms utilized for the modulation of signaling events in mammalian cells focusing on non-neuronal applications. We discuss in detail optogenetic tools and approaches applied to control signaling events mediated by second messengers, Rho GTPases and growth factor-triggered signaling cascades namely the RAS/RAF and phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase pathways. Applying the latest generation of optogenetic tools allows to control cell fate decisions such as proliferation and differentiation or to deliver therapeutic substances in a spatiotemporally controlled manner.
3.

Genetically engineered light sensors for control of bacterial gene expression.

blue green red Cyanobacteriochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Biotechnol J, 7 Jun 2011 DOI: 10.1002/biot.201100091 Link to full text
Abstract: Light of different wavelengths can serve as a transient, noninvasive means of regulating gene expression for biotechnological purposes. Implementation of advanced gene regulatory circuits will require orthogonal transcriptional systems that can be simultaneously controlled and that can produce several different control states. Fully genetically encoded light sensors take advantage of the favorable characteristics of light, do not need the supplementation of any chemical inducers or co-factors, and have been demonstrated to control gene expression in Escherichia coli. Herein, we review engineered light-sensor systems with potential for in vivo regulation of gene expression in bacteria, and highlight different means of extending the range of available light input and transcriptional output signals. Furthermore, we discuss advances in multiplexing different light sensors for achieving multichromatic control of gene expression and indicate developments that could facilitate the construction of efficient systems for light-regulated, multistate control of gene expression.
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