Showing 1 - 25 of 140 results
Needles in a haystack: H-bonding in an optogenetic protein observed with isotope labeling and 2D-IR spectroscopy.
Recently, re-purposing of cyanobacterial photoreceptors as optogentic actuators enabled light-regulated protein expression in different host systems. These new bi-stable optogenetic tools enable interesting new applications, but their light-driven working mechanism remains largely elusive on a molecular level. Here, we study the optogenetic cyanobacteriochrome Am1-c0023g2 with isotope labeling and two dimensional infrared (2D-IR) spectroscopy. Isotope labeling allows us to isolate two site-specific carbonyl marker modes from the overwhelming mid-IR signal of the peptide backbone vibrations. Unlike conventional difference-FTIR spectroscopy, 2D-IR is sensitive to homogeneous and inhomogeneous broadening mechanisms of these two vibrational probes in the different photostates of the protein. We analyse the 2D-IR line shapes in the context of available structural models and find that they reflect the hydrogen-bonding environment of these two marker groups.
Structural insights into the photoactivation of Arabidopsis CRY2.
The blue-light receptor cryptochrome (CRY) in plants undergoes oligomerization to transduce blue-light signals after irradiation, but the corresponding molecular mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the cryogenic electron microscopy structure of a blue-light-activated CRY2 tetramer at a resolution of 3.1 Å, which shows how the CRY2 tetramer assembles. Our study provides insights into blue-light-mediated activation of CRY2 and a theoretical basis for developing regulators of CRYs for optogenetic manipulation.
Resonance energy transfer sensitises and monitors in situ switching of LOV2-based optogenetic actuators.
Engineered light-dependent switches provide uniquely powerful opportunities to investigate and control cell regulatory mechanisms. Existing tools offer high spatiotemporal resolution, reversibility and repeatability. Cellular optogenetics applications remain limited with diffusible targets as the response of the actuator is difficult to independently validate. Blue light levels commonly needed for actuation can be cytotoxic, precluding long-term experiments. We describe a simple approach overcoming these obstacles. Resonance energy transfer can be used to constitutively or dynamically modulate actuation sensitivity. This simultaneously offers on-line monitoring of light-dependent switching and precise quantification of activation-relaxation properties in intact living cells. Applying this approach to different LOV2-based switches reveals that flanking sequences can lead to relaxation times up to 11-fold faster than anticipated. In situ-measured parameter values guide the design of target-inhibiting actuation trains with minimal blue-light exposure, and context-based optimisation can increase sensitivity and experimental throughput a further 10-fold without loss of temporal precision.
Steric Interactions at Gln154 in ZEITLUPE Induce Reorganization of the LOV Domain Dimer Interface.
Plants measure light, quality, intensity, and duration to coordinate growth and development with daily and seasonal changes in environmental conditions, however, the molecular details linking photochemistry to signal transduction remain incomplete. Two closely related Light, Oxygen, or Voltage (LOV) domain containing photoreceptor proteins ZEITLUPE (ZTL) and FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 (FKF1) divergently regulate the protein stability of circadian clock and photoperiodic flowering components to mediate daily and seasonal development. Using structural approaches, we identified that mutations at the Gly46 position led to global rearrangements of the ZTL dimer interface. Specifically, introduction of G46S and G46A variants that mimic equivalent residues found in FKF1 induce a 180° rotation about the dimer interface that is coupled to ordering of N- and C-terminal signaling elements. These conformational changes hinge upon rotation of a C-terminal Gln residue analogous to that present in light-state structures of ZTL. The results presented herein, confirm a divergent signaling mechanism within ZTL that deviates from other members of the LOV superfamily and suggests that mechanisms of signal transduction in LOV proteins may be fluid across the LOV protein family.
Open-Closed Structure of Light Responsive Protein LOV2 Regulates its Molecular Interaction with Binding Partner.
Optogenetic approaches have broad applications including regulating cell signalling and gene expression. Photo-responsive protein LOV2 and its binding partner ZDK represent an important protein caging/uncaging optogenetic system. Herein, we combine time-resolved small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) to reveal different structural states of LOV2 and the light-controlled mechanism of interaction between LOV2 and ZDK. In response to blue light within a time frame of ca. 70 s, LOV2 has a significantly higher value of radius of gyration Rg (29.6± 0.3 Å vs 26.4± 0.4 Å) than its dark state, suggesting unwinding of the C-terminal Jα-helix into an open structure. Atomic force microscopy was used to characterise molecular interactions of LOV2 in open and closed states with ZDK at a single molecule level. The closed state of LOV2 enables strong binding with ZDK, characterised by 60-fold lower dissociation rate and ~1.5 times higher activation energy barrier than its open state. In combination, these data support a light-switching mechanism that is modulated by the proximity of multiple binding sites of LOV2 for ZDK.
Unraveling the Mechanism of a LOV Domain Optogenetic Sensor: A Glutamine Lever Induces Unfolding of the Jα Helix.
Light-activated protein domains provide a convenient, modular, and genetically encodable sensor for optogenetics and optobiology. Although these domains have now been deployed in numerous systems, the precise mechanism of photoactivation and the accompanying structural dynamics that modulate output domain activity remain to be fully elucidated. In the C-terminal light, oxygen, voltage (LOV) domain of plant phototropins (LOV2), blue light activation leads to formation of an adduct between a conserved Cys residue and the embedded FMN chromophore, rotation of a conserved Gln (Q513), and unfolding of a helix (Jα-helix) which is coupled to the output partner. In the present work, we focus on the allosteric pathways leading to Jα helix unfolding in Avena sativa LOV2 (AsLOV2) using an interdisciplinary approach involving molecular dynamics simulations extending to 7 μs, time-resolved infrared spectroscopy, solution NMR spectroscopy, and in-cell optogenetic experiments. In the dark state, the side chain of N414 is hydrogen bonded to the backbone N-H of Q513. The simulations predict a lever-like motion of Q513 after Cys adduct formation resulting in loss of the interaction between the side chain of N414 and the backbone C=O of Q513, and formation of a transient hydrogen bond between the Q513 and N414 side chains. The central role of N414 in signal transduction was evaluated by site-directed mutagenesis supporting a direct link between Jα helix unfolding dynamics and the cellular function of the Zdk2-AsLOV2 optogenetic construct. Through this multifaceted approach, we show that Q513 and N414 are critical mediators of protein structural dynamics, linking the ultrafast (sub-ps) excitation of the FMN chromophore to the microsecond conformational changes that result in photoreceptor activation and biological function.
New light on the mechanism of phototransduction in phototropin.
Phototropins are photoreceptor proteins, which regulate blue light dependent biological processes for efficient photosynthesis in plants and algae. The proteins consist of a photosensory domain that responds to the ambient light and an output module that triggers cellular responses. The photosensory domain of phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii contains two conserved LOV (Light-Oxygen-Voltage) domains with flavin chromophores. Blue light triggers the formation of a covalent cysteine-flavin adduct and upregulates the phototropin kinase activity. Little is known about the structural mechanism which leads to kinase activation and how the two LOV domains contribute to this. Here, we investigate the role of the LOV1 domain from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii phototropin by characterizing the structural changes occurring after blue light illumination with nano- millisecond time-resolved X-ray solution scattering. By structurally fitting the data with atomic models generated by molecular dynamics simulations, we find that the adduct formation induces a rearrangement of the hydrogen bond network from the buried chromophore to the protein surface. Particularly, the change in conformation and associated hydrogen bonding of the conserved glutamine 120 induce a global movement of the β-sheet, ultimately driving a change in electrostatic potential on the protein surface. Based on the change of electrostatics, we propose a structural model of how LOV1 and LOV2 domains interact and regulate the full-length phototropin from Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This provides a rationale for how LOV photosensor proteins function and contributes to the optimal design of optogenetic tools based on LOV domains.
Excited State Vibrations of Isotopically Labeled FMN Free and Bound to a Light-Oxygen-Voltage (LOV) Protein.
Flavoproteins are important blue light sensors in photobiology and play a key role in optogenetics. The characterization of their excited state structure and dynamics is thus an important objective. Here, we present a detailed study of excited state vibrational spectra of flavin mononucleotide (FMN), in solution and bound to the LOV-2 (Light-Oxygen-Voltage) domain of Avena sativa phototropin. Vibrational frequencies are determined for the optically excited singlet state and the reactive triplet state, through resonant ultrafast femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). To assign the observed spectra, vibrational frequencies of the excited states are calculated using density functional theory, and both measurement and theory are applied to four different isotopologues of FMN. Excited state mode assignments are refined in both states, and their sensitivity to deuteration and protein environment are investigated. We show that resonant FSRS provides a useful tool for characterizing photoactive flavoproteins and is able to highlight chromophore localized modes and to record hydrogen/deuterium exchange.
Molecular Mechanism of Light-Induced Conformational Switching of the LOV Domain in Aureochrome-1.
Light oxygen voltage-sensing (LOV) domains are widely found in photoreceptor proteins of plants, algae, fungi, and bacteria. Structural studies of LOV domains suggest that Phe and Gln residues located in the proximity of the chromophore undergo conformational changes upon illumination; however, the molecular mechanism associated with activation of the effector domain remains to be elucidated. Photozipper (PZ) protein is an N-terminally truncated aureochrome-1 comprising a LOV domain and a basic leucine zipper domain. Blue light (BL) induces PZ dimerization and subsequently increases its affinity for target DNA. In this study, we prepared PZ mutants with substitutions of F298 and Q317 and performed quantitative analyses in dark and light states. Substitutions of Q317 significantly reduced the light-induced changes in PZ affinity for the target DNA, especially in the case of the high affinities observed in the dark state. Upon illumination, all PZ mutants showed increased affinity for the target sequence, which demonstrated a clear correlation with the dimer fraction of each PZ mutant. These results suggest the existence of a conformational equilibrium and that its shift by a synergistic interaction between the chromophore and protein moiety probably enables BL-regulated switching of aureochrome-1.
Illuminating a Phytochrome Paradigm- a Light-Activated Phosphatase in Two-Component Signaling Uncovered.
Bacterial phytochrome photoreceptors usually belong to two-component signaling systems which transmit environmental stimuli to a response regulator through a histidine kinase domain. Phytochromes switch between red light-absorbing and far-red light-absorbing states. Despite exhibiting extensive structural responses during this transition, the model bacteriophytochrome from Deinococcus radiodurans (DrBphP) lacks detectable kinase activity. Here, we resolve this long-standing conundrum by comparatively analyzing the interactions and output activities of DrBphP and a bacteriophytochrome from Agrobacterium fabrum (AgP1). Whereas AgP1 acts as a conventional histidine kinase, we identify DrBphP as a light-sensitive phosphatase. While AgP1 binds its cognate response regulator only transiently, DrBphP does so strongly, which is rationalized at the structural level. Our data pinpoint two key residues affecting the balance between kinase and phosphatase activities, which immediately bears on photoreception and two-component signaling. The opposing output activities in two highly similar bacteriophytochromes inform the use of light-controllable histidine kinases and phosphatases for optogenetics.
The Association Kinetics Encode the Light Dependence of Arabidopsis Phytochrome B Interactions.
Plant phytochromes enable vital adaptations to red and far-red light. At the molecular level, these responses are mediated by light-regulated interactions between phytochromes and partner proteins, foremost the phytochrome-interacting factors (PIF). Although known for decades, quantitative analyses of these interactions have long been sparse. To address this deficit, we here studied by an integrated fluorescence-spectroscopic approach the equilibrium and kinetics of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (AtPhyB) binding to a tetramerized PIF6 variant. Several readouts consistently showed the stringently light-regulated interaction to be little affected by PIF tetramerization. Analysis of the binding kinetics allowed the determination of bimolecular association and unimolecular dissociation rate constants as a function of light. Unexpectedly, the stronger affinity of AtPhyB under red light relative to far-red light is entirely due to accelerated association rather than decelerated dissociation. The association reaction under red light is highly efficient and only threefold slower than the diffusion limit. The present findings pertain equally to the analysis of signal transduction in plants and to the biotechnological application of phytochromes.
Why is CarH photolytically active in comparison to other B12-dependent enzymes?
The discovery of naturally occurring B12-depedent photoreceptors has allowed for applications of cobalamins (Cbls) in optogenetics and synthetic biology to emerge. However, theoretical investigations of the complex mechanisms of these systems have been lacking. Adenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl)-dependent photoreceptor, CarH, is one example and it relies on daylight to perform its catalytic function. Typically, in enzymes employing AdoCbl as their cofactor, the Co-C5' bond activation and cleavage is triggered by substrate binding. The cleavage of the Co-C5' bond is homolytic resulting in radical pair formation. However, in CarH, this bond is instead activated by light. To explore this peculiarity, the ground and first excited state potential energy surfaces (PESs) were constructed using the quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) framework and compared with other AdoCbl-dependent enzymes. QM/MM results indicate that CarH is photolytically active as a result of the AdoCbl dual role, acting as a radical generator and as a substrate. Photo-cleavage of the Co-C5' bond and subsequent H-atom abstraction is possible because of the specific orientation of the H-C4' bond with respect to the Co(II) center. Comparison with other AdoCbl-dependent enzymes indicate that the protein environment in the CarH active center alters the photochemistry of AdoCbl by controlling the stereochemistry of the ribose moiety.
The oligomeric structures of plant cryptochromes.
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are a group of evolutionarily conserved flavoproteins found in many organisms. In plants, the well-studied CRY photoreceptor, activated by blue light, plays essential roles in plant growth and development. However, the mechanism of activation remains largely unknown. Here, we determined the oligomeric structures of the blue-light-perceiving PHR domain of Zea mays CRY1 and an Arabidopsis CRY2 constitutively active mutant. The structures form dimers and tetramers whose functional importance is examined in vitro and in vivo with Arabidopsis CRY2. Structure-based analysis suggests that blue light may be perceived by CRY to cause conformational changes, whose precise nature remains to be determined, leading to oligomerization that is essential for downstream signaling. This photoactivation mechanism may be widely used by plant CRYs. Our study reveals a molecular mechanism of plant CRY activation and also paves the way for design of CRY as a more efficient optical switch.
Structural insights into BIC-mediated inactivation of Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2.
Cryptochromes (CRYs) are blue-light receptors in plants that harbor FAD as a cofactor and regulate various physiological responses. Photoactivated CRYs undergo oligomerization, which increases the binding affinity to downstream signaling partners. Despite decades of research on the activation of CRYs, little is known about how they are inactivated. Binding of blue-light inhibitors of cryptochromes (BICs) to CRY2 suppresses its photoactivation, but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here, we report crystal structures of CRY2N (CRY2 PHR domain) and the BIC2-CRY2N complex with resolutions of 2.7 and 2.5 Å, respectively. In the BIC2-CRY2N complex, BIC2 exhibits an extremely extended structure that sinuously winds around CRY2N. In this way, BIC2 not only restrains the transfer of electrons and protons from CRY2 to FAD during photoreduction but also interacts with the CRY2 oligomer to return it to the monomer form. Uncovering the mechanism of CRY2 inactivation lays a solid foundation for the investigation of cryptochrome protein function.
Conformational properties of LOV2 domain and its C450A variant within broad pH region.
LOV2 (Light-Oxygen-Voltage) domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2) belongs to the superfamily of PAS (Per-Arnt-Sim) domains, members of which function as signaling sensors. AsLOV2 undergoes a conformational change upon blue-light absorption by its FMN cofactor. AsLOV2 wild type (wt) is intensively studied as a photo-switchable element in conjugation with various proteins. On the other hand, its variant AsLOV2 with replaced cysteinyl residue C450, which is critical for the forming a covalent adduct with FMN upon irradiation, forms a precursor for some recently developed genetically encoded photosensitizers. In the presented work, we investigated conformational properties of AsLOV2 wt and its variant C450A by circular dichroism, tryptophan and FMN fluorescence, and differential scanning calorimetry in dependence on pH and temperature. We show that both variants are similarly sensitive towards pH of solvent. On the other hand, the mutation C450A leads to a more stable AsLOV2 variant in comparison with the wild type. Thermal transitions of the AsLOV2 proteins monitored by circular dichroism indicate the presence of significant residual structure in thermally-denatured states of both proteins in the pH range from 4 to 9. Both pH- and thermal- transitions of AsLOV2 are accompanied by FMN leaching to solvent. Higher stability, reversibility of thermal transitions, and efficiency of FMN rebinding in the case of C450A variant suggest that the cofactor release may be modulated by suitable mutations in combination with a suitable physicochemical perturbation. These findings can have implications for a design of genetically encoded photosensitizers.
Dynamic Properties of the Photosensory Domain of Deinococcus radiodurans Bacteriophytochrome.
Phytochromes are biological photoreceptors found in all kingdoms of life. Numerous physicochemical and spectroscopic studies of phytochromes have been carried out for many decades, both experimentally and computationally, with the main focus on the photoconversion mechanism involving a tetrapyrrole chromophore. In this computational work, we concentrate on the long-scale dynamic motion of the photosensory domain of Deinococcus radiodurans by means of classical all-atom molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. Conventional and accelerated MD methods in combination with two different force fields, CHARMM27 and AMBER ff14SB, are tested in long atomistic simulations to confront the dynamics of monomer and dimer forms. These calculations highlight dissimilar equilibrium conformations in aqueous solutions and, in turn, different large-scale dynamic behaviors of the monomer form vs the dimer form. While the phytochrome in a monomer form tends to close the cavity entailed between the GAF and PHY domains, the opposite trend is predicted for the phytochrome dimer, which opens up as a consequence of the formation of strong salt bridges between the PHY domains of two molecules in water.
The C-terminal region affects the activity of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase from Oscillatoria acuminata.
Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) is a unique protein that, upon blue light exposure, catalyzes cAMP production. The crystal structures of two PACs, from Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) and Beggiatoa sp. (bPAC), have been solved, and they show a high degree of similarity. However, the photoactivity of OaPAC is much lower than that of bPAC, and the regulatory mechanism of PAC photoactivity, which induces the difference in activity between OaPAC and bPAC, has not yet been clarified. Here, we investigated the role of the C-terminal region in OaPAC, the length of which is the only notable difference from bPAC. We found that the photoactivity of OaPAC was inversely proportional to the C-terminal length. However, the deletion of more than nine amino acids did not further increase the activity, indicating that the nine amino acids at the C-terminal critically affect the photoactivity. Besides, absorption spectral features of light-sensing domains (BLUF domains) of the C-terminal deletion mutants showed similar light-dependent spectral shifts as in WT, indicating that the C-terminal region influences the activity without interacting with the BLUF domain. The study characterizes new PAC mutants with modified photoactivities, which could be useful as optogenetics tools.
Detection of Incorporation of p-Coumaric Acid into Photoactive Yellow Protein Variants in Vivo.
We report the design and characterization of photoactive yellow protein (PYP)-blue fluorescent protein (mTagBFP) fusion constructs that permit the direct assay of reconstitution and function of the PYP domain. These constructs allow for in vivo testing of co-expression systems for enzymatic production of the p-coumaric acid-based PYP chromophore, via the action of tyrosine ammonia lyase and p-coumaroyl-CoA ligase (pCL or 4CL). We find that different 4CL enzymes can function to reconstitute PYP, including 4CL from Arabidopsis thaliana that can produce ∼100% holo-PYP protein under optimal conditions. mTagBFP fusion constructs additionally enable rapid analysis of effects of mutations on PYP photocycles. We use this mTagBFP fusion strategy to demonstrate in vivo reconstitution of several PYP-based optogenetic tools in Escherichia coli via a biosynthesized chromophore, an important step for the use of these optogenetic tools in vivo in diverse hosts.
Dronpa: a light-switchable fluorescent protein for opto-biomechanics.
Since the development of GFP, fluorescent proteins (FP) are indispensable tools in molecular biology. Some FPs change their structure under illumination, which affects their interaction with other biomolecules or proteins. Especially, FPs that are able to form switchable dimers became an important tool in the field of optogenetics. They are widely used for the investigation of signaling pathways, the control of surface recruitment as well as enzyme and gene regulation. However, optogenetics did not yet develop tools for the investigation of biomechanical processes. This could be leveraged if one could find a light-switchable FP dimer, that is able to withstand sufficiently high forces. In this work we measure the rupture force of the switchable interface in pdDronpa1.2 dimers using atomic force microscopy based single molecule force spectroscopy. The most probable dimer rupture force amounts to around 80 pN at a pulling speed of 1600 nm/s. After switching of the dimer using illumination at 488 nm there are hardly any measurable interface interactions, which indicates the successful dissociation of the dimers. Hence this Dronpa dimer could expand the current toolbox in optogenetics with new opto-biomechanical applications like the control of tension in adhesion processes.
Characterization and engineering of photoactivated adenylyl cyclases.
Cyclic nucleoside monophosphates (cNMP) serve as universal second messengers in signal transduction across prokaryotes and eukaryotes. As signaling often relies on transiently formed microdomains of elevated second messenger concentration, means to precisely perturb the spatiotemporal dynamics of cNMPs are uniquely poised for the interrogation of the underlying physiological processes. Optogenetics appears particularly suited as it affords light-dependent, accurate control in time and space of diverse cellular processes. Several sensory photoreceptors function as photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PAC) and hence serve as light-regulated actuators for the control of intracellular levels of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate. To characterize PACs and to refine their properties, we devised a test bed for the facile analysis of these photoreceptors. Cyclase activity is monitored in bacterial cells via expression of a fluorescent reporter, and programmable illumination allows the rapid exploration of multiple lighting regimes. We thus probed two PACs responding to blue and red light, respectively, and observed significant dark activity for both. We next engineered derivatives of the red-light-sensitive PAC with altered responses to light, with one variant, denoted DdPAC, showing enhanced response to light. These PAC variants stand to enrich the optogenetic toolkit and thus facilitate the detailed analysis of cNMP metabolism and signaling.
Plasticity in oligomerization, operator architecture, and DNA binding in the mode of action of a bacterial B12-based photoreceptor.
Newly discovered bacterial photoreceptors called CarH sense light by using 5'-deoxyadenosylcobalamin (AdoCbl). They repress their own expression and that of genes for carotenoid synthesis by binding in the dark to operator DNA as AdoCbl-bound tetramers, whose light-induced disassembly relieves repression. High-resolution structures of Thermus thermophilus CarHTt have provided snapshots of the dark and light states and have revealed a unique DNA-binding mode whereby only three out of four DNA binding domains contact an operator comprising three tandem direct repeats. To gain further insights into CarH photoreceptors and employing biochemical, spectroscopic, mutational and computational analyses, here we investigated CarHBm from Bacillus megaterium We found that apoCarHBm, unlike monomeric apoCarHTt, is an oligomeric molten globule that forms DNA-binding tetramers in the dark only upon AdoCbl binding, which requires a conserved W-x9-EH motif. Light relieved DNA binding by disrupting CarHBm tetramers to dimers, rather than to monomers as with CarHTt CarHBm operators resembled that of CarHTt, but were larger by one repeat and overlapped with the -35 or -10 promoter elements. This design persisted in a six-repeat, multipartite operator we discovered upstream of a gene encoding an Spx global redox-response regulator whose photoregulated expression links photooxidative and general redox responses in B. megaterium Interestingly, CarHBm recognized the smaller CarHTt operator, revealing an adaptability possibly related to the linker bridging the DNA- and AdoCbl-binding domains. Our findings highlight a remarkable plasticity in the mode of action of B12-based CarH photoreceptors, important for their biological functions and development as optogenetic tools.
Structure and monomer/dimer equilibrium for the guanylyl cyclase domain of the optogenetics protein RhoGC.
RhoGC is a fusion protein from the aquatic fungus Blastocladiella emersonii, combining a type I rhodopsin domain with a guanylyl cyclase domain. It has generated excitement as an optogenetics tool for the manipulation of cyclic nucleotide signaling pathways. To investigate the regulation of the cyclase activity, we isolated the guanylyl cyclase domain from Escherichia coli with (GCwCCRho) and without (GCRho) the coiled-coil linker. Both constructs were constitutively active but were monomeric as determined by size-exclusion chromatography and analytical ultracentrifugation, whereas other class III nucleotidyl cyclases are functional dimers. We also observed that crystals of GCRho have only a monomer in an asymmetric unit. Dimers formed when crystals were grown in the presence of the non-cyclizable substrate analog 2',3'-dideoxyguanosine-5'-triphosphate, MnCl2, and tartrate, but their quaternary structure did not conform to the canonical pairing expected for class III enzymes. Moreover, the structure contained a disulfide bond formed with an active-site Cys residue required for activity. We consider it unlikely that the disulfide would form under intracellular reducing conditions, raising the possibility that this unusual dimer might have a biologically relevant role in the regulation of full-length RhoGC. Although we did not observe it with direct methods, a functional dimer was identified as the active state by following the dependence of activity on total enzyme concentration. The low affinity observed for GCRho monomers is unusual for this enzyme class and suggests that dimer formation may contribute to light activation of the full-length protein.
Molecular mechanism of photoactivation of a light-regulated adenylate cyclase.
The photoactivated adenylate cyclase (PAC) from the photosynthetic cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata (OaPAC) detects light through a flavin chromophore within the N-terminal BLUF domain. BLUF domains have been found in a number of different light-activated proteins, but with different relative orientations. The two BLUF domains of OaPAC are found in close contact with each other, forming a coiled coil at their interface. Crystallization does not impede the activity switching of the enzyme, but flash cooling the crystals to cryogenic temperatures prevents the signature spectral changes that occur on photoactivation/deactivation. High-resolution crystallographic analysis of OaPAC in the fully activated state has been achieved by cryocooling the crystals immediately after light exposure. Comparison of the isomorphous light- and dark-state structures shows that the active site undergoes minimal changes, yet enzyme activity may increase up to 50-fold, depending on conditions. The OaPAC models will assist the development of simple, direct means to raise the cyclic AMP levels of living cells by light, and other tools for optogenetics.
Interactions Between phyB and PIF Proteins Alter Thermal Reversion Reactions in vitro.
The dynamic behavior of the plant red/far-red light photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) has been elucidated in natural and synthetic systems. Red light switches phyB from the inactive Pr state to the active Pfr state, a process that is reversed by far-red light. Alongside light signals, phyB activity is constrained by thermal reversion (that is prominent in the dark) and protein-protein interactions between phyB, other phytochrome molecules, and, among others, PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTORs (PIFs). Requirements for phyB-PIF association have been well studied and are central to light-regulated synthetic tools. However, it is unknown whether PIF interactions influence transitions of phyB between different conformers. Here, we show that the in vitro thermal reversion of phyB involves multiple reactions. Thermal reversion of phyB in vitro is inhibited by PIF6, and this effect is observed at all temperatures tested. We analyzed our experimental data using a mathematical model containing multiple Pfr conformers, in accordance with previous findings. Remarkably, each Pfr conformer is differentially regulated by PIF6 and temperature. As a result, we speculate that in vivo phytochrome signaling networks may require similar levels of complexity to fine-tune responses to the external environment.
Hydrogen Bonding Environment of the N3-H Group of Flavin Mononucleotide in the Light Oxygen Voltage Domains of Phototropins.
The light oxygen voltage (LOV) domain is a flavin-binding blue-light receptor domain, originally found in a plant photoreceptor phototropin (phot). Recently, LOV domains have been used in optogenetics as the photosensory domain of fusion proteins. Therefore, it is important to understand how LOV domains exhibit light-induced structural changes for the kinase domain regulation, which enables the design of LOV-containing optogenetics tools with higher photoactivation efficiency. In this study, the hydrogen bonding environment of the N3-H group of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) of the LOV2 domain from Adiantum neochrome (neo) 1 was investigated by low-temperature Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Using specifically (15)N-labeled FMN, [1,3-(15)N2]FMN, the N3-H stretch was identified at 2831 cm(-1) for the unphotolyzed state at 150 K, indicating that the N3-H group forms a fairly strong hydrogen bond. The N3-H stretch showed temperature dependence, with a shift to lower frequencies at ≤200 K and to higher frequencies at ≥250 K from the unphotolyzed to the intermediate states. Similar trends were observed in the LOV2 domains from Arabidopsis phot1 and phot2. By contrast, the N3-H stretch of the Q1029L mutant of neo1-LOV2 and neo1-LOV1 was not temperature dependent in the intermediate state. These results seemed correlated with our previous finding that the LOV2 domains show the structural changes in the β-sheet region and/or the adjacent Jα helix of LOV2 domain, but that such structural changes do not take place in the Q1029L mutant or neo1-LOV1 domain. The environment around the N3-H group was also investigated.