Showing 451 - 475 of 618 results
Engineering of a green-light inducible gene expression system in Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.
In order to construct a green-light-regulated gene expression system for cyanobacteria, we characterized a green-light sensing system derived from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803, consisting of the green-light sensing histidine kinase CcaS, the cognate response regulator CcaR, and the promoter of cpcG2 (PcpcG 2 ). CcaS and CcaR act as a genetic controller and activate gene expression from PcpcG 2 with green-light illumination. The green-light induction level of the native PcpcG 2 was investigated using GFPuv as a reporter gene inserted in a broad-host-range vector. A clear induction of protein expression from native PcpcG 2 under green-light illumination was observed; however, the expression level was very low compared with Ptrc , which was reported to act as a constitutive promoter in cyanobacteria. Therefore, a Shine-Dalgarno-like sequence derived from the cpcB gene was inserted in the 5' untranslated region of the cpcG2 gene, and the expression level of CcaR was increased. Thus, constructed engineered green-light sensing system resulted in about 40-fold higher protein expression than with the wild-type promoter with a high ON/OFF ratio under green-light illumination. The engineered green-light gene expression system would be a useful genetic tool for controlling gene expression in the emergent cyanobacterial bioprocesses.
Using optogenetics to interrogate the dynamic control of signal transmission by the Ras/Erk module.
The complex, interconnected architecture of cell-signaling networks makes it challenging to disentangle how cells process extracellular information to make decisions. We have developed an optogenetic approach to selectively activate isolated intracellular signaling nodes with light and use this method to follow the flow of information from the signaling protein Ras. By measuring dose and frequency responses in single cells, we characterize the precision, timing, and efficiency with which signals are transmitted from Ras to Erk. Moreover, we elucidate how a single pathway can specify distinct physiological outcomes: by combining distinct temporal patterns of stimulation with proteomic profiling, we identify signaling programs that differentially respond to Ras dynamics, including a paracrine circuit that activates STAT3 only after persistent (>1 hr) Ras activation. Optogenetic stimulation provides a powerful tool for analyzing the intrinsic transmission properties of pathway modules and identifying how they dynamically encode distinct outcomes.
LOV takes a pick: thermodynamic and structural aspects of the flavin-LOV-interaction of the blue-light sensitive photoreceptor YtvA from Bacillus subtilis.
LOV domains act as versatile photochromic switches servicing multiple effector domains in a variety of blue light sensing photoreceptors abundant in a multitude of organisms from all kingdoms of life. The perception of light is realized by a flavin chromophore that upon illumination reversibly switches from the non-covalently bound dark-state to a covalently linked flavin-LOV adduct. It is usually assumed that most LOV domains preferably bind FMN, but heterologous expression frequently results in the incorporation of all natural occurring flavins, i.e. riboflavin, FMN and FAD. Over recent years, the structures, photochemical properties, activation mechanisms and physiological functions of a multitude of LOV proteins have been studied intensively, but little is known about its affinities to physiologically relevant flavins or the thermodynamics of the flavin-LOV interaction. We have investigated the interaction of the LOV domain of the well characterized bacterial photoreceptor YtvA with riboflavin, FMN and FAD by ITC experiments providing binding constants and thermodynamic profiles of these interactions. For this purpose, we have developed a protocol for the production of the apo forms of YtvA and its isolated LOV domain and we demonstrate that the latter can be used as a molecular probe for free flavins in cell lysates. Furthermore, we show here using NMR spectroscopic techniques and Analytical Ultracentrifugation that the flavin moiety stabilizes the conformation of the LOV domain and that dimerization of YtvA is caused not only by intermolecular LOV-LOV but also by STAS-STAS contacts.
General method for regulating protein stability with light.
Post-translational regulation of protein abundance in cells is a powerful tool for studying protein function. Here, we describe a novel genetically encoded protein domain that is degraded upon exposure to nontoxic blue light. We demonstrate that fusion proteins containing this domain are rapidly degraded in cultured cells and in zebrafish upon illumination.
A LOV-domain-mediated blue-light-activated adenylate (adenylyl) cyclase from the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC 7420.
Genome screening of the cyanobacterium Microcoleus chthonoplastes PCC 7420 identified a gene encoding a protein (483 amino acids, 54.2 kDa in size) characteristic of a BL (blue light)-regulated adenylate (adenylyl) cyclase function. The photoreceptive part showed signatures of a LOV (light, oxygen, voltage) domain. The gene product, mPAC (Microcoleus photoactivated adenylate cyclase), exhibited the LOV-specific three-peaked absorption band (λmax=450 nm) and underwent conversion into the photoadduct form (λmax=390 nm) upon BL-irradiation. The lifetime for thermal recovery into the parent state was determined as 16 s at 20°C (25 s at 11°C). The adenylate cyclase function showed a constitutive activity (in the dark) that was in-vitro-amplified by a factor of 30 under BL-irradiation. Turnover of the purified protein at saturating light and pH 8 is estimated to 1 cAMP/mPAC per s at 25°C (2 cAMP/mPAC per s at 35°C). The lifetime of light-activated cAMP production after a BL flash was ~14 s at 20°C. The temperature optimum was determined to 35°C and the pH optimum to 8.0. The value for half-maximal activating light intensity is 6 W/m2 (at 35°C). A comparison of mPAC and the BLUF (BL using FAD) protein bPAC (Beggiatoa PAC), as purified proteins and expressed in Xenopus laevis oocytes, yielded higher constitutive activity for mPAC in the dark, but also when illuminated with BL.
Proteins in action: femtosecond to millisecond structural dynamics of a photoactive flavoprotein.
Living systems are fundamentally dependent on the ability of proteins to respond to external stimuli. The mechanism, the underlying structural dynamics, and the time scales for regulation of this response are central questions in biochemistry. Here we probe the structural dynamics of the BLUF domain found in several photoactive flavoproteins, which is responsible for light activated functions as diverse as phototaxis and gene regulation. Measurements have been made over 10 decades of time (from 100 fs to 1 ms) using transient vibrational spectroscopy. Chromophore (flavin ring) localized dynamics occur on the pico- to nanosecond time scale, while subsequent protein structural reorganization is observed over microseconds. Multiple time scales are observed for the dynamics associated with different vibrations of the protein, suggesting an underlying hierarchical relaxation pathway. Structural evolution in residues directly H-bonded to the chromophore takes place more slowly than changes in more remote residues. However, a point mutation which suppresses biological function is shown to 'short circuit' this structural relaxation pathway, suppressing the changes which occur further away from the chromophore while accelerating dynamics close to it.
Stochastic ERK activation induced by noise and cell-to-cell propagation regulates cell density-dependent proliferation.
The extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) plays a central role in the signaling cascades of cell growth. Here, we show that stochastic ERK activity pulses regulate cell proliferation rates in a cell density-dependent manner. A fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) biosensor revealed that stochastic ERK activity pulses fired spontaneously or propagated from adjacent cells. Frequency, but not amplitude, of ERK activity pulses exhibited a bell-shaped response to the cell density and correlated with cell proliferation rates. Consistently, synthetic ERK activity pulses generated by a light-switchable CRaf protein accelerated cell proliferation. A mathematical model clarified that 80% and 20% of ERK activity pulses are generated by the noise and cell-to-cell propagation, respectively. Finally, RNA sequencing analysis of cells subjected to the synthetic ERK activity pulses suggested the involvement of serum responsive factor (SRF) transcription factors in the gene expression driven by the ERK activity pulses.
Synthesis of phycocyanobilin in mammalian cells.
The chromophore 3-Z phycocyanobilin (PCB, (2R,3Z)-8,12-bis(2-carboxyethyl)-18-ethyl-3-ethylidene-2,7,13,17-tetramethyl-2,3-dihydrobilin-1,19(21H,24H)-dione) mediates red and far-red light perception in natural and synthetic biological systems. Here we describe a PCB synthesis strategy in mammalian cells. We optimize the production by co-localizing the biocatalysts to the substrate source, by coordinating the availability of the biocatalysts and by reducing the degradation of the reaction product. We show that the resulting PCB levels of 2 μM are sufficient to sustain the functionality of red light-responsive optogenetic tools suitable for the light-inducible control of gene expression in mammalian cells.
Multiple bHLH proteins form heterodimers to mediate CRY2-dependent regulation of flowering-time in Arabidopsis.
Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) mediates light control of flowering time. CIB1 (CRY2-interacting bHLH 1) specifically interacts with CRY2 in response to blue light to activate the transcription of FT (Flowering Locus T). In vitro, CIB1 binds to the canonical E-box (CACGTG, also referred to as G-box) with much higher affinity than its interaction with non-canonical E-box (CANNTG) DNA sequences. However, in vivo, CIB1 binds to the chromatin region of the FT promoter, which only contains the non-canonical E-box sequences. Here, we show that CRY2 also interacts with at least CIB5, in response to blue light, but not in darkness or in response to other wavelengths of light. Our genetic analysis demonstrates that CIB1, CIB2, CIB4, and CIB5 act redundantly to activate the transcription of FT and that they are positive regulators of CRY2 mediated flowering. More importantly, CIB1 and other CIBs proteins form heterodimers, and some of the heterodimers have a higher binding affinity than the CIB homodimers to the non-canonical E-box in the in vitro DNA-binding assays. This result explains why in vitro CIB1 and other CIBs bind to the canonical E-box (G-box) with a higher affinity, whereas they are all associated with the non-canonical E-boxes at the FT promoter in vivo. Consistent with the hypothesis that different CIB proteins play similar roles in the CRY2-midiated blue light signaling, the expression of CIB proteins is regulated specifically by blue light. Our study demonstrates that CIBs function redundantly in regulating CRY2-dependent flowering, and that different CIBs form heterodimers to interact with the non-canonical E-box DNA in vivo.
Arabidopsis CRY2 and ZTL mediate blue-light regulation of the transcription factor CIB1 by distinct mechanisms.
Plants possess multiple photoreceptors to mediate light regulation of growth and development, but it is not well understood how different photoreceptors coordinate their actions to jointly regulate developmental responses, such as flowering time. In Arabidopsis, the photoexcited cryptochrome 2 interacts with the transcription factor CRYPTOCHROME-INTERACTING basic helix-loop-helix 1 (CIB1) to activate transcription and floral initiation. We show that the CIB1 protein expression is regulated by blue light; CIB1 is highly expressed in plants exposed to blue light, but levels of the CIB1 protein decreases in the absence of blue light. We demonstrate that CIB1 is degraded by the 26S proteasome and that blue light suppresses CIB1 degradation. Surprisingly, although cryptochrome 2 physically interacts with CIB1 in response to blue light, it is not the photoreceptor mediating blue-light suppression of CIB1 degradation. Instead, two of the three light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-domain photoreceptors, ZEITLUPE and LOV KELCH PROTEIN 2, but not FLAVIN-BINDING KELCH REPEAT 1, are required for the function and blue-light suppression of degradation of CIB1. These results support the hypothesis that the evolutionarily unrelated blue-light receptors, cryptochrome and LOV-domain F-box proteins, mediate blue-light regulation of the same transcription factor by distinct mechanisms.
Optogenetic control of protein kinase activity in mammalian cells.
Light-dependent dimerization is the basis for recently developed noninvasive optogenetic tools. Here we present a novel tool combining optogenetics with the control of protein kinase activity to investigate signal transduction pathways. Mediated by Arabidopsis thaliana photoreceptor cryptochrome 2, we activated the protein kinase C-RAF by blue light-dependent dimerization, allowing for decoupling from upstream signaling events induced by surface receptors. The activation by light is fast, reversible, and not only time but also dose dependent as monitored by phosphorylation of ERK1/2. Additionally, light-activated C-RAF controls serum response factor-mediated gene expression. Light-induced heterodimerization of C-RAF with a kinase-dead mutant of B-RAF demonstrates the enhancing role of B-RAF as a scaffold for C-RAF activity, which leads to the paradoxical activation of C-RAF found in human cancers. This optogenetic tool enables reversible control of protein kinase activity in signal duration and strength. These properties can help to shed light onto downstream signaling processes of protein kinases in living cells.
Fine tuning the LightOn light-switchable transgene expression system.
Spatiotemporal control of transgene expression in living cells provides new opportunities for the characterization of gene function in complex biological processes. We previously reported a synthetic, light-switchable transgene expression system called LightOn that can be used to control gene expression using blue light. In the present study, we modified the different promoter segments of the light switchable transcription factor GAVPO and the target gene, and assayed their effects on protein expression under dark or light conditions. The results showed that the LightOn system maintained its high on/off ratio under most modifications, but its induction efficiency and background gene expression level can be fine-tuned by modifying the core promoter, the UASG sequence number, the length of the spacer between UASG and the core promoter of the target protein, and the expression level of the GAVPO transcription factor. Thus, the LightOn gene expression system can be adapted to a large range of applications according to the requirements of the background and the induced gene expression.
Light-inducible activation of target mRNA translation in mammalian cells.
A genetically encoded optogenetic system was constructed that activates mRNA translation in mammalian cells in response to light. Blue light induces the reconstitution of an RNA binding domain and a translation initiation domain, thereby activating target mRNA translation downstream of the binding sites.
Optobiology: optical control of biological processes via protein engineering.
Enabling optical control over biological processes is a defining goal of the new field of optogenetics. Control of membrane voltage by natural rhodopsin family ion channels has found widespread acceptance in neuroscience, due to the fact that these natural proteins control membrane voltage without further engineering. In contrast, optical control of intracellular biological processes has been a fragmented effort, with various laboratories engineering light-responsive properties into proteins in different manners. In the present article, we review the various systems that have been developed for controlling protein functions with light based on vertebrate rhodopsins, plant photoregulatory proteins and, most recently, the photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa. By allowing biology to be controlled with spatiotemporal specificity and tunable dynamics, light-controllable proteins will find applications in the understanding of cellular and organismal biology and in synthetic biology.
Blue light-induced dimerization of a bacterial LOV-HTH DNA-binding protein.
With their utilization of light-driven allostery to control biochemical activities, photosensory proteins are of great interest as model systems and novel reagents for use by the basic science and engineering communities. One such protein, the light-activated EL222 transcription factor, from the marine bacterium Erythrobacter litoralis HTCC2594, is appealing for such studies, as it harnesses blue light to drive the reorientation of light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) sensory and helix-turn-helix (HTH) effector domains to allow photoactivation of gene transcription in natural and artificial systems. The protein conformational changes required for this process are not well understood, in part because of the relatively short lifetime of the EL222 photoexcited state (τ ∼ 29 s), which complicates its characterization via certain biophysical methods. Here we report how we have circumvented this limitation by creating an EL222 variant harboring V41I, L52I, A79Q, and V121I point mutations (AQTrip) that stabilizes the photoactivated state. Using the wild-type and AQTrip EL222 proteins, we have probed EL222 activation using a combination of solution scattering, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), and electromobility shift assays. Size-exclusion chromatography and light scattering indicate that AQTrip oligomerizes in the absence of DNA and selects for an EL222 dimer-DNA complex in the presence of DNA substrates. These results are confirmed in wild-type EL222 with a high-affinity DNA-binding site that stabilizes the complex. NMR analyses of the EL222-DNA complex confirm a 2:1 stoichiometry in the presence of a previously characterized DNA substrate. Combined, these novel approaches have validated a key mechanistic step, whereby blue light induces EL222 dimerization through LOV and HTH interfaces.
Optical control of mammalian endogenous transcription and epigenetic states.
The dynamic nature of gene expression enables cellular programming, homeostasis and environmental adaptation in living systems. Dissection of causal gene functions in cellular and organismal processes therefore necessitates approaches that enable spatially and temporally precise modulation of gene expression. Recently, a variety of microbial and plant-derived light-sensitive proteins have been engineered as optogenetic actuators, enabling high-precision spatiotemporal control of many cellular functions. However, versatile and robust technologies that enable optical modulation of transcription in the mammalian endogenous genome remain elusive. Here we describe the development of light-inducible transcriptional effectors (LITEs), an optogenetic two-hybrid system integrating the customizable TALE DNA-binding domain with the light-sensitive cryptochrome 2 protein and its interacting partner CIB1 from Arabidopsis thaliana. LITEs do not require additional exogenous chemical cofactors, are easily customized to target many endogenous genomic loci, and can be activated within minutes with reversibility. LITEs can be packaged into viral vectors and genetically targeted to probe specific cell populations. We have applied this system in primary mouse neurons, as well as in the brain of freely behaving mice in vivo to mediate reversible modulation of mammalian endogenous gene expression as well as targeted epigenetic chromatin modifications. The LITE system establishes a novel mode of optogenetic control of endogenous cellular processes and enables direct testing of the causal roles of genetic and epigenetic regulation in normal biological processes and disease states.
Techniques: Optogenetics takes more control.
Abstract not available.
RasGRF2 Rac-GEF activity couples NMDA receptor calcium flux to enhanced synaptic transmission.
Dendritic spines are the primary sites of excitatory synaptic transmission in the vertebrate brain, and the morphology of these actin-rich structures correlates with synaptic function. Here we demonstrate a unique method for inducing spine enlargement and synaptic potentiation in dispersed hippocampal neurons, and use this technique to identify a coordinator of these processes; Ras-specific guanine nucleotide releasing factor 2 (RasGRF2). RasGRF2 is a dual Ras/Rac guanine nucleotide exchange factor (GEF) that is known to be necessary for long-term potentiation in situ. Contrary to the prevailing assumption, we find RasGRF2's Rac-GEF activity to be essential for synaptic potentiation by using a molecular replacement strategy designed to dissociate Rac- from Ras-GEF activities. Furthermore, we demonstrate that Rac1 activity itself is sufficient to rapidly modulate postsynaptic strength by using a photoactivatable derivative of this small GTPase. Because Rac1 is a major actin regulator, our results support a model where the initial phase of long-term potentiation is driven by the cytoskeleton.
Optogenetic control of PIP3: PIP3 is sufficient to induce the actin-based active part of growth cones and is regulated via endocytosis.
Phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) is highly regulated in a spatiotemporal manner and plays multiple roles in individual cells. However, the local dynamics and primary functions of PIP3 in developing neurons remain unclear because of a lack of techniques for manipulating PIP3 spatiotemporally. We addressed this issue by combining optogenetic control and observation of endogenous PIP3 signaling. Endogenous PIP3 was abundant in actin-rich structures such as growth cones and "waves", and PIP3-rich plasma membranes moved actively within growth cones. To study the role of PIP3 in developing neurons, we developed a PI3K photoswitch that can induce production of PIP3 at specific locations upon blue light exposure. We succeeded in producing PIP3 locally in mouse hippocampal neurons. Local PIP3 elevation at neurite tips did not induce neurite elongation, but it was sufficient to induce the formation of filopodia and lamellipodia. Interestingly, ectopic PIP3 elevation alone activated membranes to form actin-based structures whose behavior was similar to that of growth-cone-like "waves". We also found that endocytosis regulates effective PIP3 concentration at plasma membranes. These results revealed the local dynamics and primary functions of PIP3, providing fundamental information about PIP3 signaling in neurons.
Optogenetic inhibition of synaptic release with chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI).
Optogenetic techniques provide effective ways of manipulating the functions of selected neurons with light. In the current study, we engineered an optogenetic technique that directly inhibits neurotransmitter release. We used a genetically encoded singlet oxygen generator, miniSOG, to conduct chromophore assisted light inactivation (CALI) of synaptic proteins. Fusions of miniSOG to VAMP2 and synaptophysin enabled disruption of presynaptic vesicular release upon illumination with blue light. In cultured neurons and hippocampal organotypic slices, synaptic release was reduced up to 100%. Such inhibition lasted >1 hr and had minimal effects on membrane electrical properties. When miniSOG-VAMP2 was expressed panneuronally in Caenorhabditis elegans, movement of the worms was reduced after illumination, and paralysis was often observed. The movement of the worms recovered overnight. We name this technique Inhibition of Synapses with CALI (InSynC). InSynC is a powerful way to silence genetically specified synapses with light in a spatially and temporally precise manner.
Formation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 photobodies in mammalian nuclei: application as an optogenetic DNA damage checkpoint switch.
Nuclear bodies are discrete suborganelle structures that perform specialized functions in eukaryotic cells. In plant cells, light can induce de novo formation of nuclear bodies called photobodies (PBs) composed of the photosensory pigments, phytochrome (PHY) or cryptochrome (CRY). The mechanisms of formation, the exact compositions, and the functions of plant PBs are not known. Here, we have expressed Arabidopsis CRY2 (AtCRY2) in mammalian cells and analyzed its fate after blue light exposure to understand the requirements for PB formation, the functions of PBs, and their potential use in cell biology. We found that light efficiently induces AtCRY2-PB formation in mammalian cells, indicating that, other than AtCRY2, no plant-specific proteins or nucleic acids are required for AtCRY2-PB formation. Irradiation of AtCRY2 led to its degradation; however, degradation was not dependent upon photobody formation. Furthermore, we found that AtCRY2 photobody formation is associated with light-stimulated interaction with mammalian COP1 E3 ligase. Finally, we demonstrate that by fusing AtCRY2 to the TopBP1 DNA damage checkpoint protein, light-induced AtCRY2 PBs can be used to activate DNA damage signaling pathway in the absence of DNA damage.
A light-inducible organelle-targeting system for dynamically activating and inactivating signaling in budding yeast.
Protein localization plays a central role in cell biology. Although powerful tools exist to assay the spatial and temporal dynamics of proteins in living cells, our ability to control these dynamics has been much more limited. We previously used the phytochrome B- phytochrome-interacting factor light-gated dimerization system to recruit proteins to the plasma membrane, enabling us to control the activation of intracellular signals in mammalian cells. Here we extend this approach to achieve rapid, reversible, and titratable control of protein localization for eight different organelles/positions in budding yeast. By tagging genes at the endogenous locus, we can recruit proteins to or away from their normal sites of action. This system provides a general strategy for dynamically activating or inactivating proteins of interest by controlling their localization and therefore their availability to binding partners and substrates, as we demonstrate for galactose signaling. More importantly, the temporal and spatial precision of the system make it possible to identify when and where a given protein's activity is necessary for function, as we demonstrate for the mitotic cyclin Clb2 in nuclear fission and spindle stabilization. Our light-inducible organelle-targeting system represents a powerful approach for achieving a better understanding of complex biological systems.
The UVR8 UV-B Photoreceptor: Perception, Signaling and Response.
Ultraviolet-B radiation (UV-B) is an intrinsic part of sunlight that is accompanied by significant biological effects. Plants are able to perceive UV-B using the UV-B photoreceptor UVR8 which is linked to a specific molecular signaling pathway and leads to UV-B acclimation. Herein we review the biological process in plants from initial UV-B perception and signal transduction through to the known UV-B responses that promote survival in sunlight. The UVR8 UV-B photoreceptor exists as a homodimer that instantly monomerises upon UV-B absorption via specific intrinsic tryptophans which act as UV-B chromophores. The UVR8 monomer interacts with COP1, an E3 ubiquitin ligase, initiating a molecular signaling pathway that leads to gene expression changes. This signaling output leads to UVR8-dependent responses including UV-B-induced photomorphogenesis and the accumulation of UV-B-absorbing flavonols. Negative feedback regulation of the pathway is provided by the WD40-repeat proteins RUP1 and RUP2, which facilitate UVR8 redimerization, disrupting the UVR8-COP1 interaction. Despite rapid advancements in the field of recent years, further components of UVR8 UV-B signaling are constantly emerging, and the precise interplay of these and the established players UVR8, COP1, RUP1, RUP2 and HY5 needs to be defined. UVR8 UV-B signaling represents our further understanding of how plants are able to sense their light environment and adjust their growth accordingly.
An optogenetic tool for the activation of endogenous diaphanous-related formins induces thickening of stress fibers without an increase in contractility.
We have developed an optogenetic technique for the activation of diaphanous-related formins. Our approach is based on fusion of the light-oxygen-voltage 2 domain of Avena sativa Phototrophin1 to an isolated Diaphanous Autoregulatory Domain from mDia1. This "caged" diaphanous auto-regulatory domain was inactive in the dark but in the presence of blue light rapidly activated endogenous diaphanous-related formins. Using an F-actin reporter, we observed filopodia and lamellipodia formation as well as a steady increase in F-actin along existing stress fibers, starting within minutes of photo-activation. Interestingly, we did not observe the formation of new stress fibers. Remarkably, a 1.9-fold increase in F-actin was not paralleled by an increase in myosin II along stress fibers and the amount of tension generated by the fibers, as judged by focal adhesion size, appeared unchanged. Our results suggest a decoupling between F-actin accumulation and contractility in stress fibers and demonstrate the utility of photoactivatable diaphanous autoregulatory domain for the study of diaphanous-related formin function in cells.
Phytochrome-interacting factors have both shared and distinct biological roles.
Phytochromes are plant photoreceptors that perceive red and far-red light. Upon the perception of light in Arabidopsis, light-activated phytochromes enter the nucleus and act on a set of interacting proteins, modulating their activities and thereby altering the expression levels of ∼10% of the organism's entire gene complement. Phytochromeinteracting factors (PIFs) belonging to Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) subgroup 15 are key interacting proteins that play negative roles in light responses. Their activities are post-translationally countered by light-activated phytochromes, which promote the degradation of PIFs and directly or indirectly inhibit their binding to DNA. The PIFs share a high degree of similarity, but examinations of pif single and multiple mutants have indicated that they have shared and distinct functions in various developmental and physiological processes. These are believed to stem from differences in both intrinsic protein properties and their gene expression patterns. In an effort to clarify the basis of these shared and distinct functions, we compared recently published genome-wide ChIP data, developmental gene expression maps, and responses to various stimuli for the various PIFs. Based on our observations, we propose that the biological roles of PIFs stem from their shared and distinct DNA binding targets and specific gene expression patterns.