Showing 1051 - 1075 of 1085 results
Oligomeric structure of LOV domains in Arabidopsis phototropin.
Oligomeric structures of the four LOV domains in Arabidopsis phototropin1 (phot1) and 2 (phot2) were studied using crosslinking. Both LOV1 domains of phot1 and phot2 form a dimer independently on the light conditions, suggesting that the LOV1 domain can be a stable dimerization site of phot in vivo. In contrast, phot1-LOV2 is in a monomer-dimer equilibrium and phot2-LOV2 exists as a monomer in the dark. Blue light-induced a slight increase in the monomer population in phot1-LOV2, suggesting a possible blue light-inducible dissociation of dimers. Furthermore, blue light caused a band shift of the phot2-LOV2 monomer. CD spectra revealed the unfolding of helices and the formation of strand structures. Both light-induced changes were reversible in the dark.
A conserved glutamine plays a central role in LOV domain signal transmission and its duration.
Light is a key stimulus for plant biological functions, several of which are controlled by light-activated kinases known as phototropins, a group of kinases that contain two light-sensing domains (LOV, light-oxygen-voltage domains) and a C-terminal serine/threonine kinase domain. The second sensory domain, LOV2, plays a key role in regulating kinase enzymatic activity via the photochemical formation of a covalent adduct between a LOV2 cysteine residue and an internally bound flavin mononucleotide (FMN) chromophore. Subsequent conformational changes in LOV2 lead to the unfolding of a peripheral Jalpha helix and, ultimately, phototropin kinase activation. To date, the mechanism coupling bond formation and helix dissociation has remained unclear. Previous studies found that a conserved glutamine residue [Q513 in the Avena sativa phototropin 1 LOV2 (AsLOV2) domain] switches its hydrogen bonding pattern with FMN upon light stimulation. Located in the immediate vicinity of the FMN binding site, this Gln residue is provided by the Ibeta strand that interacts with the Jalpha helix, suggesting a route for signal propagation from the core of the LOV domain to its peripheral Jalpha helix. To test whether Q513 plays a key role in tuning the photochemical and transduction properties of AsLOV2, we designed two point mutations, Q513L and Q513N, and monitored the effects on the chromophore and protein using a combination of UV-visible absorbance and circular dichroism spectroscopy, limited proteolysis, and solution NMR. The results show that these mutations significantly dampen the changes between the dark and lit state AsLOV2 structures, leaving the protein in a pseudodark state (Q513L) or a pseudolit state (Q513N). Further, both mutations changed the photochemical properties of this receptor, in particular the lifetime of the photoexcited signaling states. Together, these data establish that this residue plays a central role in both spectral tuning and signal propagation from the core of the LOV domain through the Ibeta strand to the peripheral Jalpha helix.
A light-independent allele of phytochrome B faithfully recapitulates photomorphogenic transcriptional networks.
Dominant gain-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis phytochrome B were recently shown to confer light-independent, constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotypes to transgenic plants (Su and Lagarias, 2007). In the present study, comparative transcription profiling experiments were performed to assess whether the pattern of gene expression regulated by these alleles accurately reflects the process of photomorphogenesis in wild-type Arabidopsis. Whole-genome transcription profiles of dark-grown phyAphyB seedlings expressing the Y276H mutant of phyB (YHB) revealed that YHB reprograms about 13% of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in a light-independent manner. The YHB-regulated transcriptome proved qualitatively similar to but quantitatively greater than those of wild-type seedlings grown under 15 or 50 micromol m(-2) m(-1) continuous red light (Rc). Among the 2977 genes statistically significant two-fold (SSTF) regulated by YHB in the absence of light include those encoding components of the photosynthetic apparatus, tetrapyrrole/pigment biosynthetic pathways, and early light-responsive signaling factors. Approximately 80% of genes SSTF regulated by Rc were also YHB-regulated. Expression of a notable subset of 346 YHB-regulated genes proved to be strongly attenuated by Rc, indicating compensating regulation by phyC-E and/or other Rc-dependent processes. Since the majority of these 346 genes are regulated by the circadian clock, these results suggest that phyA- and phyB-independent light signaling pathway(s) strongly influence clock output. Together with the unique plastid morphology of dark-grown YHB seedlings, these analyses indicate that the YHB mutant induces constitutive photomorphogenesis via faithful reconstruction of phyB signaling pathways in a light-independent fashion.
Design and signaling mechanism of light-regulated histidine kinases.
Signal transduction proteins are organized into sensor (input) domains that perceive a signal and, in response, regulate the biological activity of effector (output) domains. We reprogrammed the input signal specificity of a normally oxygen-sensitive, light-inert histidine kinase by replacing its chemosensor domain by a light-oxygen-voltage photosensor domain. Illumination of the resultant fusion kinase YF1 reduced net kinase activity by approximately 1000-fold in vitro. YF1 also controls gene expression in a light-dependent manner in vivo. Signals are transmitted from the light-oxygen-voltage sensor domain to the histidine kinase domain via a 40 degrees -60 degrees rotational movement within an alpha-helical coiled-coil linker; light is acting as a rotary switch. These signaling principles are broadly applicable to domains linked by alpha-helices and to chemo- and photosensors. Conserved sequence motifs guide the rational design of light-regulated variants of histidine kinases and other proteins.
Multiple phytochrome-interacting bHLH transcription factors repress premature seedling photomorphogenesis in darkness.
An important contributing factor to the success of terrestrial flowering plants in colonizing the land was the evolution of a developmental strategy, termed skotomorphogenesis, whereby postgerminative seedlings emerging from buried seed grow vigorously upward in the subterranean darkness toward the soil surface.
Photoexcited CRY2 interacts with CIB1 to regulate transcription and floral initiation in Arabidopsis.
Cryptochromes (CRY) are photolyase-like blue-light receptors that mediate light responses in plants and animals. How plant cryptochromes act in response to blue light is not well understood. We report here the identification and characterization of the Arabidopsis CIB1 (cryptochrome-interacting basic-helix-loop-helix) protein. CIB1 interacts with CRY2 (cryptochrome 2) in a blue light-specific manner in yeast and Arabidopsis cells, and it acts together with additional CIB1-related proteins to promote CRY2-dependent floral initiation. CIB1 binds to G box (CACGTG) in vitro with a higher affinity than its interaction with other E-box elements (CANNTG). However, CIB1 stimulates FT messenger RNA expression, and it interacts with chromatin DNA of the FT gene that possesses various E-box elements except G box. We propose that the blue light-dependent interaction of cryptochrome(s) with CIB1 and CIB1-related proteins represents an early photoreceptor signaling mechanism in plants.
Surface sites for engineering allosteric control in proteins.
Statistical analyses of protein families reveal networks of coevolving amino acids that functionally link distantly positioned functional surfaces. Such linkages suggest a concept for engineering allosteric control into proteins: The intramolecular networks of two proteins could be joined across their surface sites such that the activity of one protein might control the activity of the other. We tested this idea by creating PAS-DHFR, a designed chimeric protein that connects a light-sensing signaling domain from a plant member of the Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) family of proteins with Escherichia coli dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR). With no optimization, PAS-DHFR exhibited light-dependent catalytic activity that depended on the site of connection and on known signaling mechanisms in both proteins. PAS-DHFR serves as a proof of concept for engineering regulatory activities into proteins through interface design at conserved allosteric sites.
Photodynamics of blue-light-regulated phosphodiesterase BlrP1 protein from Klebsiella pneumoniae and its photoreceptor BLUF domain.
The BlrP1 protein from the enteric bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae consists of a BLUF and an EAL domain
and may activate c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase by blue-light. The full-length protein, BlrP1, and its BLUF
domain, BlrP1_BLUF, are characterized by optical absorption and emission spectroscopy. The cofactor
FAD in its oxidized redox state (FADox) is brought from the dark-adapted receptor state to the 10-nm
red-shifted putative signalling state by violet light exposure. The recovery to the receptor state occurs
with a time constant of about 1 min. The quantum yield of signalling state formation is about 0.17 for
BlrP1_BLUF and about 0.08 for BlrP1. The fluorescence efficiency of the FADox cofactor is small due to
photo-induced reductive electron transfer. Prolonged light exposure converts FADox in the signalling state
to the fully reduced hydroquinone form FADredH and causes low-efficient chromophore release with
subsequent photo-degradation. The photo-cycle and photo-reduction dynamics in the receptor state
and in the signalling state are discussed.
Transposing phytochrome into the nucleus.
To control many physiological responses, phytochromes directly modulate gene expression. A key regulatory event in this signal transduction pathway is the light-controlled translocation of the photoreceptor from the cytoplasm into the nucleus. Recent publications are beginning to shed light on the molecular mechanisms underlying this central control point. Interestingly, there is a specific mechanism for phytochrome A (phyA) nuclear accumulation. The dedicated phyA nuclear import pathway might be important for the distinct photosensory specificity of this atypical phytochrome. Recent studies in the field also provide a starting point for investigating how the different subcellular pools of phytochrome can control distinct responses to light.
Genetically encoded photoswitching of actin assembly through the Cdc42-WASP-Arp2/3 complex pathway.
General methods to engineer genetically encoded, reversible, light-mediated control over protein function would be useful in many areas of biomedical research and technology. We describe a system that yields such photo-control over actin assembly. We fused the Rho family GTPase Cdc42 in its GDP-bound form to the photosensory domain of phytochrome B (PhyB) and fused the Cdc42 effector, the Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome Protein (WASP), to the light-dependent PhyB-binding domain of phytochrome interacting factor 3 (Pif3). Upon red light illumination, the fusion proteins bind each other, activating WASP, and consequently stimulating actin assembly by the WASP target, the Arp2/3 complex. Binding and WASP activation are reversed by far-red illumination. Our approach, in which the biochemical specificity of the nucleotide switch in Cdc42 is overridden by the light-dependent PhyB-Pif3 interaction, should be generally applicable to other GTPase-effector pairs.
PixE promotes dark oligomerization of the BLUF photoreceptor PixD.
Cyanobacteria perceive and move (phototax) in response to blue light. In this study, we demonstrate that the PixD blue light-sensing using FAD (BLUF) photoreceptor that governs this response undergoes changes in oligomerization state upon illumination. Under dark conditions we observed that PixD forms a large molecular weight complex with another protein called PixE. Stoicheometric analyses, coupled with sedimentation equilibrium and size exclusion chromatography, demonstrates that PixE drives aggregation of PixD dimers into a stable PixD(10)-PixE(5) complex under dark conditions. Illumination of a flavin chromophore in PixD destabilizes the PixD(10)-PixE(5) complex into monomers of PixE and dimers of PixD. A crystallographic structure of PixD, coupled with Gibbs free energy calculation between interacting faces of PixD, lends to a model in which a light induces a conformational change in a critical PixD-interfacing loop that results in destabilization of the PixD(10)-PixE(5) complex.
Light-activated DNA binding in a designed allosteric protein.
An understanding of how allostery, the conformational coupling of distant functional sites, arises in highly evolvable systems is of considerable interest in areas ranging from cell biology to protein design and signaling networks. We reasoned that the rigidity and defined geometry of an alpha-helical domain linker would make it effective as a conduit for allosteric signals. To test this idea, we rationally designed 12 fusions between the naturally photoactive LOV2 domain from Avena sativa phototropin 1 and the Escherichia coli trp repressor. When illuminated, one of the fusions selectively binds operator DNA and protects it from nuclease digestion. The ready success of our rational design strategy suggests that the helical "allosteric lever arm" is a general scheme for coupling the function of two proteins.
Cyanobacteriochrome CcaS is the green light receptor that induces the expression of phycobilisome linker protein.
Cyanobacteriochromes are a newly recognized group of photoreceptors that are distinct relatives of phytochromes but are found only in cyanobacteria. A putative cyanobacteriochrome, CcaS, is known to chromatically regulate the expression of the phycobilisome linker gene (cpcG2) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In this study, we isolated the chromophore-binding domain of CcaS from Synechocystis as well as from phycocyanobilin-producing Escherichia coli. Both preparations showed the same reversible photoconversion between a green-absorbing form (Pg, lambda(max) = 535 nm) and a red-absorbing form (Pr, lambda(max) = 672 nm). Mass spectrometry and denaturation analyses suggested that Pg and Pr bind phycocyanobilin in a double-bond configuration of C15-Z and C15-E, respectively. Autophosphorylation activity of the histidine kinase domain in nearly full-length CcaS was up-regulated by preirradiation with green light. Similarly, phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator, CcaR, was higher in Pr than in Pg. From these results, we conclude that CcaS phosphorylates CcaR under green light and induces expression of cpcG2, leading to accumulation of CpcG2-phycobilisome as a chromatic acclimation system. CcaS is the first recognized green light receptor in the expanded phytochrome superfamily, which includes phytochromes and cyanobacteriochromes.
Photoregulation in prokaryotes.
The spectroscopic identification of sensory rhodopsin I by Bogomolni and Spudich in 1982 provided a molecular link between the light environment and phototaxis in Halobacterium salinarum, and thus laid the foundation for the study of signal transducing photosensors in prokaryotes. In recent years, a number of new prokaryotic photosensory receptors have been discovered across a broad range of taxa, including dozens in chemotrophic species. Among these photoreceptors are new classes of rhodopsins, BLUF-domain proteins, bacteriophytochromes, cryptochromes, and LOV-family photosensors. Genetic and biochemical analyses of these receptors have demonstrated that they can regulate processes ranging from photosynthetic pigment biosynthesis to virulence.
Activation of protein splicing with light in yeast.
Spatiotemporal regulation of protein function is a key feature of living systems; experimental tools that provide such control are of great utility. Here we report a genetically encoded system for controlling a post-translational process, protein splicing, with light. Studies in Saccharomyces cerevisiae demonstrate that fusion of a photodimerization system from Arabidopsis thaliana to an artificially split intein permits rapid activation of protein splicing to yield a new protein product.
N- and C-terminal flanking regions modulate light-induced signal transduction in the LOV2 domain of the blue light sensor phototropin 1 from Avena sativa.
Light sensing by photoreceptors controls phototropism, chloroplast movement, stomatal opening, and leaf expansion in plants. Understanding the molecular mechanism by which these processes are regulated requires a quantitative description of photoreceptor dynamics. We focus on a light-driven signal transduction mechanism in the LOV2 domain (LOV, light, oxygen, voltage) of the blue light photoreceptor phototropin 1 from Avena sativa (oat). High-resolution crystal structures of the dark and light states of an oat LOV2 construct including residues Leu404 through Leu546 (LOV2 (404-546)) have been determined at 105 and 293 K. In all four structures, LOV2 (404-546) exhibits the typical Per-ARNT-Sim (PAS) fold, flanked by an additional conserved N-terminal turn-helix-turn motif and a C-terminal flanking region containing an amphipathic Jalpha helix. These regions dock on the LOV2 core domain and bury several hydrophobic residues of the central beta-sheet of the core domain that would otherwise be exposed to solvent. Light structures of LOV2 (404-546) reveal that formation of the covalent bond between Cys450 and the C4a atom of the flavin mononucleotide (FMN) results in local rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network in the FMN binding pocket. These rearrangements are associated with disruption of the Asn414-Asp515 hydrogen bond on the surface of the protein and displacement of the N- and C-terminal flanking regions of LOV2 (404-546), both of which constitute a structural signal.
Dual role for a bacteriophytochrome in the bioenergetic control of Rhodopseudomonas palustris: enhancement of photosystem synthesis and limitation of respiration.
In the purple photosynthetic bacterium Rhodopseudomonas palustris, far-red illumination induces photosystem synthesis via the action of the bacteriophytochrome RpBphP1. This bacteriophytochrome antagonizes the repressive effect of the transcriptional regulator PpsR2 under aerobic condition. We show here that, in addition to photosystem synthesis, far-red light induces a significant growth rate limitation, compared to cells grown in the dark, linked to a decrease in the respiratory activity. The phenotypes of mutants inactivated in RpBphP1 and PpsR2 show their involvement in this regulation. Based on enzymatic and transcriptional studies, a 30% decrease in the expression of the alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase complex, a central enzyme of the Krebs cycle, is observed under far-red light. We propose that this decrease is responsible for the down-regulation of respiration in this condition. This regulation mechanism at the Krebs cycle level still allows the formation of the photosynthetic apparatus via the synthesis of key biosynthesis precursors but lowers the production of NADH, i.e. the respiratory activity. Overall, the dual action of RpBphP1 on the regulation of both the photosynthesis genes and the Krebs cycle allows a fine adaptation of bacteria to environmental conditions by enhancement of the most favorable bioenergetic process in the light, photosynthesis versus respiration.
Structural basis for light-dependent signaling in the dimeric LOV domain of the photosensor YtvA.
The photosensor YtvA binds flavin mononucleotide and regulates the general stress reaction in Bacillus subtilis in response to blue light illumination. It belongs to the family of light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) proteins that were first described in plant phototropins and form a subgroup of the Per-Arnt-Sim (PAS) superfamily. Here, we report the three-dimensional structure of the LOV domain of YtvA in its dark and light states. The protein assumes the global fold common to all PAS domains and dimerizes via a hydrophobic interface. Directly C-terminal to the core of the LOV domain, an alpha-helix extends into the solvent. Light absorption causes formation of a covalent bond between a conserved cysteine residue and atom C(4a) of the FMN ring, which triggers rearrangements throughout the LOV domain. Concomitantly, in the dark and light structures, the two subunits of the dimeric protein rotate relative to each other by 5 degrees . This small quaternary structural change is presumably a component of the mechanism by which the activity of YtvA is regulated in response to light. In terms of both structure and signaling mechanism, YtvA differs from plant phototropins and more closely resembles prokaryotic heme-binding PAS domains.
Steric interactions stabilize the signaling state of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1.
Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light receptor kinases that control a range of photoresponses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Light sensing by the phototropins is mediated by a repeated motif at the N-terminal region of the protein known as the LOV domain. Bacterially expressed LOV domains bind flavin mononucleotide noncovalently and are photochemically active in solution. Irradiation of the LOV domain results in the formation of a flavin-cysteinyl adduct (LOV390) which thermally relaxes back to the ground state in the dark, effectively completing a photocycle that serves as a molecular switch to control receptor kinase activity. We have employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify further amino acid residues involved in LOV-domain photochemistry. Escherichia coli colonies expressing a mutagenized population of LOV2 derived from Avena sativa (oat) phot1 were screened for variants that showed altered photochemical reactivity in response to blue light excitation. One variant showed slower rates of LOV390 formation but exhibited adduct decay times 1 order of magnitude faster than wild type. A single Ile --> Val substitution was responsible for the effects observed, which removes a single methyl group found in van der Waals contact with the cysteine sulfur involved in adduct formation. A kinetic acceleration trend was observed for adduct decay by decreasing the size of the isoleucine side chain. Our findings therefore indicate that the steric nature of this amino acid side chain contributes to stabilization of the C-S cysteinyl adduct.
Functional transplant of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) into Aplysia sensory neurons.
In neural mechanisms of animal learning, intracellular cAMP has been known to play an important role. In the present experiments we attempted functional transplant of a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) isolated from Euglena into Aplysia neurons, and explored whether PAC can produce cAMP in the neurons by light stimulation. Serotonergic modulation of mechanoafferent sensory neurons in Aplysia pleural ganglia has been reported to increase intracellular cAMP level and promotes synaptic transmission to motor neurons by increasing spike width of sensory neurons. When cAMP was directly injected into the sensory neurons, spike amplitude temporarily decreased while spike width temporarily increased. This effect was not substituted by injection of 5'AMP, and maintained longer in a bath solution containing IBMX, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor. We, therefore, explored these changes as indicators of appearance of the PAC function. PAC or the PAC expression vector (pNEX-PAC) was injected into cell bodies of sensory neurons. Spike amplitude decreased in both cases and spike width increased in the PAC injection when the neurons were stimulated with light, suggesting that the transplanted PAC works well in Aplysia neurons. These results indicate that we can control cAMP production in specific neurons with light by the functional transplant of PAC.
A novel photoreaction mechanism for the circadian blue light photoreceptor Drosophila cryptochrome.
Cryptochromes are flavoproteins that are evolutionary related to the DNA photolyases but lack DNA repair activity. Drosophila cryptochrome (dCRY) is a blue light photoreceptor that is involved in the synchronization of the circadian clock with the environmental light-dark cycle. Until now, spectroscopic and structural studies on this and other animal cryptochromes have largely been hampered by difficulties in their recombinant expression. We have therefore established an expression and purification scheme that enables us to purify mg amounts of monomeric dCRY from Sf21 insect cell cultures. Using UV-visible spectroscopy, mass spectrometry, and reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography, we show that insect cell-purified dCRY contains flavin adenine dinucleotide in its oxidized state (FAD(ox)) and residual amounts of methenyltetrahydrofolate. Upon blue light irradiation, dCRY undergoes a reversible absorption change, which is assigned to the conversion of FAD(ox) to the red anionic FAD(.) radical. Our findings lead us to propose a novel photoreaction mechanism for dCRY, in which FAD(ox) corresponds to the ground state, whereas the FAD(.) radical represents the light-activated state that mediates resetting of the Drosophila circadian clock.
Structure and photoreaction of photoactive yellow protein, a structural prototype of the PAS domain superfamily.
Photoactive yellow protein (PYP) is a water-soluble photosensor protein found in purple photosynthetic bacteria. Unlike bacterial rhodopsins, photosensor proteins composed of seven transmembrane helices and a retinal chromophore in halophilic archaebacteria, PYP is a highly soluble globular protein. The alpha/beta fold structure of PYP is a structural prototype of the PAS domain superfamily, many members of which function as sensors for various kinds of stimuli. To absorb a photon in the visible region, PYP has a p-coumaric acid chromophore binding to the cysteine residue via a thioester bond. It exists in a deprotonated trans form in the dark. The primary photochemical event is photo-isomerization of the chromophore from trans to cis form. The twisted cis chromophore in early intermediates is relaxed and finally protonated. Consequently, the chromophore becomes electrostatically neutral and rearrangement of the hydrogen-bonding network triggers overall structural change of the protein moiety, in which local conformational change around the chromophore is propagated to the N-terminal region. Thus, it is an ideal model for protein conformational changes that result in functional change, responding to stimuli and expressing physiological activity. In this paper, recent progress in investigation of the photoresponse of PYP is reviewed.
Fast manipulation of cellular cAMP level by light in vivo.
The flagellate Euglena gracilis contains a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), consisting of the flavoproteins PACalpha and PACbeta. Here we report functional expression of PACs in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK293 cells and in Drosophila melanogaster, where neuronal expression yields light-induced changes in behavior. The activity of PACs is strongly and reversibly enhanced by blue light, providing a powerful tool for light-induced manipulation of cAMP in animal cells.
An unorthodox bacteriophytochrome from Rhodobacter sphaeroides involved in turnover of the second messenger c-di-GMP.
Bacteriophytochromes are bacterial photoreceptors that sense red/far red light using the biliverdin chromophore. Most bacteriophytochromes work as photoactivated protein kinases. The Rhodobacter sphaeroides bacteriophytochrome BphG1 is unconventional in that it has GGDEF and EAL output domains, which are involved, respectively, in synthesis (diguanylate cyclase) and degradation (phosphodiesterase) of the bacterial second messenger c-di-GMP. The GGDEF-EAL proteins studied to date displayed either diguanylate cyclase or phosphodiesterase activity but not both. To elucidate the function of BphG1, the holoprotein was purified from an Escherichia coli overexpression system designed to produce biliverdin. The holoprotein contained covalently bound biliverdin and interconverted between the red (dark) and far red (light-activated) forms. BphG1 had c-di-GMP-specific phosphodiesterase activity. Unexpectedly for a photochromic protein, this activity was essentially light-independent. BphG1 expressed in E. coli was found to undergo partial cleavage into two species. The smaller species was identified as the EAL domain of BphG1. It possessed c-di-GMP phosphodiesterase activity. Surprisingly, the larger species lacking EAL possessed diguanylate cyclase activity, which was dependent on biliverdin and strongly activated by light. BphG1 therefore is the first phytochrome with a non-kinase photoactivated enzymatic activity. This shows that the photosensory modules of phytochromes can transmit light signals to various outputs. BphG1 is potentially the first "bifunctional" enzyme capable of both c-di-GMP synthesis and hydrolysis. A model for the regulation of the "opposite" activities of BphG1 is presented.
Blue light activates the sigmaB-dependent stress response of Bacillus subtilis via YtvA.
Here we present evidence for a physiologically relevant light response mediated by the LOV domain-containing protein YtvA in the soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis. The loss and overproduction of YtvA abolish and enhance, respectively, the increase in sigma(B)-controlled ctc promoter activity at moderate light intensities. These effects were absent in the dark and in red light but present under blue-light illumination. Thus, activation of the general stress response in B. subtilis is modulated by blue light.