Showing 151 - 175 of 647 results
Light-dependent cytoplasmic recruitment enhances the dynamic range of a nuclear import photoswitch.
Cellular signal transduction is often regulated at multiple steps in order to achieve more complex logic or precise control of a pathway. For instance, some signaling mechanisms couple allosteric activation with localization to achieve high signal to noise. Here, we create a system for light activated nuclear import that incorporates two levels of control. It consists of a nuclear import photoswitch, Light Activated Nuclear Shuttle (LANS), and a protein engineered to preferentially interact with LANS in the dark, Zdk2. First, Zdk2 is tethered to a location in the cytoplasm, which sequesters LANS in the dark. Second, LANS incorporates a nuclear localization signal (NLS) that is sterically blocked from binding to the nuclear import machinery in the dark. When activated with light, LANS both dissociates from its tethered location and exposes its NLS, which leads to nuclear accumulation. We demonstrate that this coupled system improves the dynamic range of LANS in mammalian cells, yeast, and C. elegans and provides tighter control of transcription factors that have been fused to LANS.
A miniaturized E. coli green light sensor with high dynamic range.
Genetically-engineered photoreceptors enable unrivaled control over gene expression. Previously, we ported the Synechocystis PCC 6803 CcaSR two-component system, which is activated by green light and de-activated by red, into E. coli, resulting in a sensor with 6-fold dynamic range. Later, we optimized pathway protein expression levels and the output promoter sequence to decrease transcriptional leakiness and increase the dynamic range to approximately 120-fold. These CcaSR v1.0 and 2.0 systems have been used for precise quantitative, temporal, and spatial control of gene expression for a variety of applications. Recently, others have deleted two PAS domains of unknown function from the CcaS sensor histidine kinase in a CcaSR v1.0-like system. Here, we apply these deletions to CcaSR v2.0, resulting in a v3.0 light sensor with 4-fold lower leaky output and nearly 600-fold dynamic range. We demonstrate that the PAS domain deletions have no deleterious effect on CcaSR green light sensitivity or response dynamics. CcaSR v3.0 is the best performing engineered bacterial green light sensor available, and should have broad applications in fundamental and synthetic biology studies.
A novel optogenetically tunable frequency modulating oscillator.
Synthetic biology has enabled the creation of biological reconfigurable circuits, which perform multiple functions monopolizing a single biological machine; Such a system can switch between different behaviours in response to environmental cues. Previous work has demonstrated switchable dynamical behaviour employing reconfigurable logic gate genetic networks. Here we describe a computational framework for reconfigurable circuits in E.coli using combinations of logic gates, and also propose the biological implementation. The proposed system is an oscillator that can exhibit tunability of frequency and amplitude of oscillations. Further, the frequency of operation can be changed optogenetically. Insilico analysis revealed that two-component light systems, in response to light within a frequency range, can be used for modulating the frequency of the oscillator or stopping the oscillations altogether. Computational modelling reveals that mixing two colonies of E.coli oscillating at different frequencies generates spatial beat patterns. Further, we show that these oscillations more robustly respond to input perturbations compared to the base oscillator, to which the proposed oscillator is a modification. Compared to the base oscillator, the proposed system shows faster synchronization in a colony of cells for a larger region of the parameter space. Additionally, the proposed oscillator also exhibits lesser synchronization error in the transient period after input perturbations. This provides a strong basis for the construction of synthetic reconfigurable circuits in bacteria and other organisms, which can be scaled up to perform functions in the field of time dependent drug delivery with tunable dosages, and sets the stage for further development of circuits with synchronized population level behaviour.
Local control of intracellular microtubule dynamics by EB1 photodissociation.
End-binding proteins (EBs) are adaptors that recruit functionally diverse microtubule plus-end-tracking proteins (+TIPs) to growing microtubule plus ends. To test with high spatial and temporal accuracy how, when and where +TIP complexes contribute to dynamic cell biology, we developed a photo-inactivated EB1 variant (π-EB1) by inserting a blue-light-sensitive protein–protein interaction module between the microtubule-binding and +TIP-binding domains of EB1. π-EB1 replaces endogenous EB1 function in the absence of blue light. By contrast, blue-light-mediated π-EB1 photodissociation results in rapid +TIP complex disassembly, and acutely and reversibly attenuates microtubule growth independent of microtubule end association of the microtubule polymerase CKAP5 (also known as ch-TOG and XMAP215). Local π-EB1 photodissociation allows subcellular control of microtubule dynamics at the second and micrometre scale, and elicits aversive turning of migrating cancer cells. Importantly, light-mediated domain splitting can serve as a template to optically control other intracellular protein activities.
Optogenetic Reconstitution for Determining the Form and Function of Membraneless Organelles.
It has recently become clear that large-scale macromolecular self-assembly is a rule, rather than an exception, of intracellular organization. A growing number of proteins and RNAs have been shown to self-assemble into micrometer-scale clusters that exhibit either liquid-like or gel-like properties. Given their proposed roles in intracellular regulation, embryo development, and human disease, it is becoming increasingly important to understand how these membraneless organelles form and to map their functional consequences for the cell. Recently developed optogenetic systems make it possible to acutely control cluster assembly and disassembly in live cells, driving the separation of proteins of interest into liquid droplets, hydrogels, or solid aggregates. Here we propose that these approaches, as well as their evolution into the next generation of optogenetic biophysical tools, will allow biologists to determine how the self-assembly of membraneless organelles modulates diverse biochemical processes.
Dynamic blue light-switchable protein patterns on giant unilamellar vesicles.
The blue light-dependent interaction between the proteins iLID and Nano allows recruiting and patterning proteins on GUV membranes, which thereby capture key features of patterns observed in nature. This photoswitchable protein interaction provides non-invasive, reversible and dynamic control over protein patterns of different sizes with high specificity and spatiotemporal resolution.
Unique Roles of β-Arrestin in GPCR Trafficking Revealed by Photoinducible Dimerizers.
Intracellular trafficking of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) controls their localization and degradation, which affects a cell's ability to adapt to extracellular stimuli. Although the perturbation of trafficking induces important diseases, these trafficking mechanisms are poorly understood. Herein, we demonstrate an optogenetic method using an optical dimerizer, cryptochrome (CRY) and its partner protein (CIB), to analyze the trafficking mechanisms of GPCRs and their regulatory proteins. Temporally controlling the interaction between β-arrestin and β2-adrenergic receptor (ADRB2) reveals that the duration of the β-arrestin-ADRB2 interaction determines the trafficking pathway of ADRB2. Remarkably, the phosphorylation of ADRB2 by G protein-coupled receptor kinases is unnecessary to trigger clathrin-mediated endocytosis, and β-arrestin interacting with unphosphorylated ADRB2 fails to activate mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling, in contrast to the ADRB2 agonist isoproterenol. Temporal control of β-arrestin-GPCR interactions will enable the investigation of the unique roles of β-arrestin and the mechanism by which it regulates β-arrestin-specific trafficking pathways of different GPCRs.
Generation of Optogenetically Modified Adenovirus Vector for Spatiotemporally Controllable Gene Therapy.
Gene therapy is expected to be utilized for the treatment of various diseases. However, the spatiotemporal resolution of current gene therapy technology is not high enough. In this study, we generated a new technology for spatiotemporally controllable gene therapy. We introduced optogenetic and CRISPR/Cas9 techniques into a recombinant adenovirus (Ad) vector, which is widely used in clinical trials and exhibits high gene transfer efficiency, to generate an illumination-dependent spatiotemporally controllable gene regulation system (designated the Opt/Cas-Ad system). We generated an Opt/Cas-Ad system that could regulate a potential tumor suppressor gene, and we examined the effectiveness of this system in cancer treatment using a xenograft tumor model. With the Opt/Cas-Ad system, highly selective tumor treatment could be performed by illuminating the tumor. In addition, Opt/Cas-Ad system-mediated tumor treatment could be stopped simply by turning off the light. We believe that our Opt/Cas-Ad system can enhance both the safety and effectiveness of gene therapy.
Split Cas9, not hairs - advancing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technology.
The discovery that the bacterial CRISPR/Cas9 system can be translated into mammalian cells continues to have an unprecedented impact on the biomedical research community, as it largely facilitates efforts to experimentally interrogate or therapeutically modify the cellular genome. In particular, CRISPR promises the ability to correct disease-associated genetic defects, or to target and destroy invading foreign DNA, in a simple, efficient and selective manner directly in affected human cells or tissues. Here, we highlight a set of exciting new strategies that aim at further increasing the therapeutic index of CRISPR technologies, by reducing the size of Cas9 expression cassettes and thus enhancing their compatibility with viral gene delivery vectors. Specifically, we discuss the concept of splitCas9 whereby the Cas9 holo-protein is segregated into two parts that are expressed individually and reunited in the cell by various means, including use of (i) the gRNA as a scaffold for Cas9 assembly, (ii) the rapamycin-controlled FKBP/FRB system, (iii) the light-regulated Magnet system, or (iv) inteins. We describe how these avenues, despite pursuing the identical aim, differ in critical features comprising the extent of spatio-temporal control of CRISPR activity, and discuss additional improvements to their efficiency or specificity that should foster their clinical translation.
Biosynthesis of Orthogonal Molecules Using Ferredoxin and Ferredoxin-NADP+ Reductase Systems Enables Genetically Encoded PhyB Optogenetics.
Transplanting metabolic reactions from one species into another has many uses as a research tool with applications ranging from optogenetics to crop production. Ferredoxin (Fd), the enzyme that most often supplies electrons to these reactions, is often overlooked when transplanting enzymes from one species to another because most cells already contain endogenous Fd. However, we have shown that the production of chromophores used in Phytochrome B (PhyB) optogenetics, is greatly enhanced in mammalian cells by expressing bacterial and plant Fds with ferredoxin-NADP+ reductases (FNR). We delineated the rate limiting factors and found that the main metabolic precursor, heme, was not the primary limiting factor for producing either the cyanobacterial or plant chromophores, phycocyanobilin or phytochromobilin, respectively. In fact, Fd is limiting, followed by Fd+FNR and finally heme. Using these findings, we optimized the PCB production system and for the first time, combined it with a tissue penetrating red/far-red sensing PhyB optogenetic gene switch in animal cells. We further characterized this system in several mammalian cell lines using red and far-red light. Importantly, we found that the light-switchable gene system remains active for several hours upon illumination, even with a short light pulse and requires very small amounts of light for maximal activation. Boosting chromophore production by matching metabolic pathways with specific ferredoxin systems will enable the unparalleled use of the many PhyB optogenetic tools and has broader implications for optimizing synthetic metabolic pathways.
Control of microtubule dynamics using an optogenetic microtubule plus end-F-actin cross-linker.
We developed a novel optogenetic tool, SxIP-improved light-inducible dimer (iLID), to facilitate the reversible recruitment of factors to microtubule (MT) plus ends in an end-binding protein-dependent manner using blue light. We show that SxIP-iLID can track MT plus ends and recruit tgRFP-SspB upon blue light activation. We used this system to investigate the effects of cross-linking MT plus ends and F-actin in Drosophila melanogaster S2 cells to gain insight into spectraplakin function and mechanism. We show that SxIP-iLID can be used to temporally recruit an F-actin binding domain to MT plus ends and cross-link the MT and F-actin networks. Cross-linking decreases MT growth velocities and generates a peripheral MT exclusion zone. SxIP-iLID facilitates the general recruitment of specific factors to MT plus ends with temporal control enabling researchers to systematically regulate MT plus end dynamics and probe MT plus end function in many biological processes.
Spatiotemporal Control of TGF-β Signaling with Light.
Cells employ signaling pathways to make decisions in response to changes in their immediate environment. Transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) is an important growth factor that regulates many cellular functions in development and disease. Although the molecular mechanisms of TGF-β signaling have been well studied, our understanding of this pathway is limited by the lack of tools that allow the control of TGF-β signaling with high spatiotemporal resolution. Here, we developed an optogenetic system (optoTGFBRs) that enables the precise control of TGF-β signaling in time and space. Using the optoTGFBRs system, we show that TGF-β signaling can be selectively and sequentially activated in single cells through the modulation of the pattern of light stimulations. By simultaneously monitoring the subcellular localization of TGF-β receptor and Smad2 proteins, we characterized the dynamics of TGF-β signaling in response to different patterns of blue light stimulations. The spatial and temporal precision of light control will make the optoTGFBRs system as a powerful tool for quantitative analyses of TGF-β signaling at the single cell level.
Light-induced chromophore and protein responses and mechanical signal transduction of BLUF proteins.
Photoreceptor proteins have been used to study how protein conformational changes are induced by alterations in their environments and how their signals are transmitted to downstream factors to dictate physiological responses. These proteins are attractive models because their signal transduction aspects and structural changes can be precisely regulated in vivo and in vitro based on light intensity. Among the known photoreceptors, members of the blue light-using flavin (BLUF) protein family have been well characterized with regard to how they control various light-dependent physiological responses in several microorganisms. Herein, we summarize our current understanding of their photoactivation and signal-transduction mechanisms. For signal transduction, we review recent studies concerning how the BLUF protein, PixD, transmits a light-induced signal to its downstream factor, PixE, to modulate phototaxis of the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803.
Optogenetic tools for cell biological applications.
Abstract not available.
Optogenetics reprogramming of planktonic cells for biofilm formation.
Single-cell behaviors play essential roles during early-stage biofilms formation. In this study, we evaluated whether biofilm formation could be guided by precisely manipulating single cells behaviors. Thus, we established an illumination method to precisely manipulate the type IV pili (TFP) mediated motility and microcolony formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa by using a combination of a high-throughput bacterial tracking algorithm, optogenetic manipulation and adaptive microscopy. We termed this method as Adaptive Tracking Illumination (ATI). We reported that ATI enables the precise manipulation of TFP mediated motility and microcolony formation during biofilm formation by manipulating bis-(3′-5′)-cyclic dimeric guanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP) levels in single cells. Moreover, we showed that the spatial organization of single cells in mature biofilms can be controlled using ATI. Thus, the established method (i.e., ATI) can markedly promote ongoing studies of biofilms.
Optogenetic Control of Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Tethering.
The organelle interface emerges as a dynamic platform for a variety of biological responses. However, their study has been limited by the lack of tools to manipulate their occurrence in live cells spatiotemporally. Here, we report the development of a genetically encoded light-inducible tethering (LIT) system allowing the induction of contacts between endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria, taking advantage of a pair of light-dependent heterodimerization called an iLID system. We demonstrate that the iLID-based LIT approach enables control of ER-mitochondria tethering with high spatiotemporal precision in various cell types including primary neurons, which will facilitate the functional study of ER-mitochondrial contacts.
Coupling optogenetics and light-sheet microscopy, a method to study Wnt signaling during embryogenesis.
Optogenetics allows precise, fast and reversible intervention in biological processes. Light-sheet microscopy allows observation of the full course of Drosophila embryonic development from egg to larva. Bringing the two approaches together allows unparalleled precision into the temporal regulation of signaling pathways and cellular processes in vivo. To develop this method, we investigated the regulation of canonical Wnt signaling during anterior-posterior patterning of the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) from Arabidopsis Thaliana was fused to mCherry fluorescent protein and Drosophila β-catenin to form an easy to visualize optogenetic switch. Blue light illumination caused oligomerization of the fusion protein and inhibited downstream Wnt signaling in vitro and in vivo. Temporal inactivation of β-catenin confirmed that Wnt signaling is required not only for Drosophila pattern formation, but also for maintenance later in development. We anticipate that this method will be easily extendable to other developmental signaling pathways and many other experimental systems.
Optically controlled reversible protein hydrogels based on photoswitchable fluorescent protein Dronpa.
Exploiting the optically controlled association and dissociation behavior of a photoswitchable fluorescent protein, Dronpa145N, here we demonstrate the engineering of an optically switchable reversible protein hydrogel using Dronpa145N-based protein building blocks. Our results open the possibility to optically tune the mechanical, chemical and structural properties of protein hydrogels.
Illuminating information transfer in signaling dynamics by optogenetics.
Cells receive diverse signaling cues from their environment that trigger cascades of biochemical reactions in a dynamic manner. Single-cell imaging technologies have revealed that not only molecular species but also dynamic patterns of signaling inputs determine the fates of signal-receiving cells; however it has been challenging to elucidate how such dynamic information is delivered and decoded in complex networks of inter-cellular and inter-molecular interactions. The recent development of optogenetic technology with photo-sensitive proteins has changed this situation; the combination of microscopy and optogenetics provides fruitful insights into the mechanism of dynamic information processing at the single-cell level. Here, we review recent efforts to visualize the flows of dynamic patterns in signaling pathways, which utilize methods integrating single-cell imaging and optogenetics.
Emerging approaches for spatiotemporal control of targeted genome with inducible CRISPR-Cas9.
The breakthrough CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) nuclease has revolutionized our ability in genome engineering. Although Cas9 is already a powerful tool for simple and efficient target endogenous gene manipulation, further engineering of Cas9 will improve the performance of Cas9, such as gene-editing efficiency and accuracy in vivo, and expand the application possibility of this Cas9 technology. The emerging inducible Cas9 methods, which can control the activity of Cas9 using an external stimulus such as chemicals and light, have the potential to provide spatiotemporal gene manipulation in user-defined cell population at a specific time and improve the accuracy of Cas9-mediated genome editing. In this review, we focus on the recent advance in inducible Cas9 technologies, especially light-inducible Cas9, and related methodologies, and also discuss future directions of this emerging tools.
New Developments in CRISPR/Cas-based Functional Genomics and their Implications for Research using Zebrafish.
Genome editing using CRISPR/Cas9 has advanced very rapidly in its scope, versatility and ease of use. Zebrafish (Danio rerio) has been one of the vertebrate model species where CRISPR/Cas9 has been applied very extensively for many different purposes and with great success. In particular, disease modeling in zebrafish is useful for testing specific gene variants for pathogenicity in a preclinical setting. Here we describe multiple advances in diverse species and systems that can improve genome editing in zebrafish. To achieve temporal and spatial precision of genome editing, many new technologies can be applied in zebrafish such as artificial transcription factors, drug-inducible or optogenetically-driven expression of Cas9, or chemically-inducible activation of Cas9. Moreover, chemically- or optogenetically-inducible reconstitution of dead Cas9 (catalytically inactive, dCas9) can enable spatiotemporal control of gene regulation. In addition to controlling where and when genome editing occurs, using oligonucleotides allows for the introduction (knock-in) of precise modifications of the genome. We review recent trends to improve the precision and efficiency of oligo-based point mutation knock-ins and discuss how these improvements can apply to work in zebrafish. Similarly to how chemical mutagenesis enabled the first genetic screens in zebrafish, multiplexed sgRNA libraries and Cas9 can enable the next revolutionary transition in how genetic screens are performed in this species. We discuss the first examples and prospects of approaches using sgRNAs as specific and effective mutagens. Moreover, we have reviewed methods aimed at measuring the phenotypes of single cells after their mutagenic perturbation with vectors encoding individual sgRNAs. These methods can range from different cell-based reporters to single-cell RNA sequencing and can serve as great tools for high-throughput genetic screens.
Optogenetic activation of EphB2 receptor in dendrites induced actin polymerization by activating Arg kinase.
Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptors regulate a wide array of developmental processes by responding to cell-cell contacts. EphB2 is well-expressed in brain and known to be important for dendritic spine development, as well as for the maintenance of the synapses, although the mechanisms of these functions have not been fully understood. Here we studied EphB2's functions in hippocampal neurons with an optogenetic approach, which allows us to specify spatial regions of signal activation and monitor in real-time the consequences of signal activation. We designed and constructed OptoEphB2, a genetically encoded photoactivatable EphB2. Photoactivation of OptoEphB2 in fibroblast cells induced receptor phosphorylation and resulted in cell rounding - a well-known cellular response to EphB2 activation. In contrast, local activation of OptoEphb2 in dendrites of hippocampal neurons induces rapid actin polymerization, resulting dynamic dendritic filopodial growth. Inhibition of Rac1 and CDC42 did not abolish OptoEphB2-induced actin polymerization. Instead, we identified Abelson Tyrosine-Protein Kinase 2 (Abl2/Arg) as a necessary effector in OptoEphB2-induced filopodia growth in dendrites. These findings provided new mechanistic insight into EphB2's role in neural development and demonstrated the advantage of OptoEphB as a new tool for studying EphB signaling.
Cell membrane dynamics induction using optogenetic tools.
Structures arising from actin-based cell membrane movements, including ruffles, lamellipodia, and filopodia, play important roles in a broad spectrum of cellular functions, such as cell motility, axon guidance in neurons, wound healing, and micropinocytosis. Previous studies investigating these cell membrane dynamics often relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies did not allow the modulation of protein activity at specific regions of cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision. Recently, optogenetic tools for inducing cell membrane dynamics have been developed which address several of the disadvantages of previous techniques. In a recent study, we developed a powerful optogenetic tool, called the Magnet system, to change cell membrane dynamics through Tiam1 and PIP3 signal transductions with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this review, we summarize recent advances in optogenetic tools that allow us to induce actin-regulated cell membrane dynamics and unique membrane ruffles that we discovered using our Magnet system.
Shaping bacterial population behavior through computer-interfaced control of individual cells.
Bacteria in groups vary individually, and interact with other bacteria and the environment to produce population-level patterns of gene expression. Investigating such behavior in detail requires measuring and controlling populations at the single-cell level alongside precisely specified interactions and environmental characteristics. Here we present an automated, programmable platform that combines image-based gene expression and growth measurements with on-line optogenetic expression control for hundreds of individual Escherichia coli cells over days, in a dynamically adjustable environment. This integrated platform broadly enables experiments that bridge individual and population behaviors. We demonstrate: (i) population structuring by independent closed-loop control of gene expression in many individual cells, (ii) cell-cell variation control during antibiotic perturbation, (iii) hybrid bio-digital circuits in single cells, and freely specifiable digital communication between individual bacteria. These examples showcase the potential for real-time integration of theoretical models with measurement and control of many individual cells to investigate and engineer microbial population behavior.
Gradients of Rac1 Nanoclusters Support Spatial Patterns of Rac1 Signaling.
Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each. These nanoclusters assemble because of the interaction of the polybasic tail of Rac1 with the phosphoinositide lipids PIP2 and PIP3. The additional interactions with GEFs and possibly GAPs, downstream effectors, and other partners are responsible for an enrichment of Rac1 nanoclusters in protruding regions of the cell. Our results show that subcellular patterns of Rac1 activity are supported by gradients of signaling nanodomains of heterogeneous molecular composition, which presumably act as discrete signaling platforms.