Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results

Transient Activations of Rac1 at the Lamellipodium Tip Trigger Membrane Protrusion.

blue CRY2/CIB1 MEF-1 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Curr Biol, 8 Aug 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.cub.2019.07.035 Link to full text
Abstract: The spatiotemporal coordination of actin regulators in the lamellipodium determines the dynamics and architecture of branched F-actin networks during cell migration. The WAVE regulatory complex (WRC), an effector of Rac1 during cell protrusion, is concentrated at the lamellipodium tip. Thus, activated Rac1 should operate at this location to activate WRC and trigger membrane protrusion. Yet correlation of Rho GTPase activation with cycles of membrane protrusion previously revealed complex spatiotemporal patterns of Rac1 and RhoA activation in the lamellipodium. Combining single protein tracking (SPT) and super-resolution imaging with loss- or gain-of-function mutants of Rho GTPases, we show that Rac1 immobilizations at the lamellipodium tip correlate with its activation, in contrast to RhoA. Using Rac1 effector loop mutants and wild-type versus mutant variants of WRC, we show that selective immobilizations of activated Rac1 at the lamellipodium tip depend on effector binding, including WRC. In contrast, wild-type Rac1 only displays slower diffusion at the lamellipodium tip, suggesting transient activations. Local optogenetic activation of Rac1, triggered by membrane recruitment of Tiam1, shows that Rac1 activation must occur close to the lamellipodium tip and not behind the lamellipodium to trigger efficient membrane protrusion. However, coupling tracking with optogenetic activation of Rac1 demonstrates that diffusive properties of wild-type Rac1 are unchanged despite enhanced lamellipodium protrusion. Taken together, our results support a model whereby transient activations of Rac1 occurring close to the lamellipodium tip trigger WRC binding. This short-lived activation ensures a local and rapid control of Rac1 actions on its effectors to trigger actin-based protrusion.

RalB directly triggers invasion downstream Ras by mobilizing the Wave complex.

blue CRY2/CIB1 HEK293T Signaling cascade control Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Elife, 15 Oct 2018 DOI: 10.7554/elife.40474 Link to full text
Abstract: The two Ral GTPases, RalA and RalB, have crucial roles downstream Ras oncoproteins in human cancers; in particular, RalB is involved in invasion and metastasis. However, therapies targeting Ral signalling are not available yet. By a novel optogenetic approach, we found that light-controlled activation of Ral at plasma-membrane promotes the recruitment of the Wave Regulatory Complex (WRC) via its effector exocyst, with consequent induction of protrusions and invasion. We show that active Ras signals to RalB via two RalGEFs (Guanine nucleotide Exchange Factors), RGL1 and RGL2, to foster invasiveness; RalB contribution appears to be more important than that of MAPK and PI3K pathways. Moreover, on the clinical side, we uncovered a potential role of RalB in human breast cancers by determining that RalB expression at protein level increases in a manner consistent with progression toward metastasis. This work highlights the Ras-RGL1/2-RalB-exocyst-WRC axis as appealing target for novel anti-cancer strategies.

Gradients of Rac1 Nanoclusters Support Spatial Patterns of Rac1 Signaling.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Cos-7
Cell Rep, 14 Nov 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.celrep.2017.10.069 Link to full text
Abstract: Rac1 is a small RhoGTPase switch that orchestrates actin branching in space and time and protrusion/retraction cycles of the lamellipodia at the cell front during mesenchymal migration. Biosensor imaging has revealed a graded concentration of active GTP-loaded Rac1 in protruding regions of the cell. Here, using single-molecule imaging and super-resolution microscopy, we show an additional supramolecular organization of Rac1. We find that Rac1 partitions and is immobilized into nanoclusters of 50-100 molecules each. These nanoclusters assemble because of the interaction of the polybasic tail of Rac1 with the phosphoinositide lipids PIP2 and PIP3. The additional interactions with GEFs and possibly GAPs, downstream effectors, and other partners are responsible for an enrichment of Rac1 nanoclusters in protruding regions of the cell. Our results show that subcellular patterns of Rac1 activity are supported by gradients of signaling nanodomains of heterogeneous molecular composition, which presumably act as discrete signaling platforms.

Predictive Spatiotemporal Manipulation of Signaling Perturbations Using Optogenetics.

blue CRY2/CIB1 HeLa NIH/3T3 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Biophys J, 3 Nov 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.bpj.2015.08.042 Link to full text
Abstract: Recently developed optogenetic methods promise to revolutionize cell biology by allowing signaling perturbations to be controlled in space and time with light. However, a quantitative analysis of the relationship between a custom-defined illumination pattern and the resulting signaling perturbation is lacking. Here, we characterize the biophysical processes governing the localized recruitment of the Cryptochrome CRY2 to its membrane-anchored CIBN partner. We develop a quantitative framework and present simple procedures that enable predictive manipulation of protein distributions on the plasma membrane with a spatial resolution of 5 μm. We show that protein gradients of desired levels can be established in a few tens of seconds and then steadily maintained. These protein gradients can be entirely relocalized in a few minutes. We apply our approach to the control of the Cdc42 Rho GTPase activity. By inducing strong localized signaling perturbation, we are able to monitor the initiation of cell polarity and migration with a remarkable reproducibility despite cell-to-cell variability.
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