Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results
β-Catenin signaling dynamics regulate cell fate in differentiating neural stem cells.
Stem cells undergo differentiation in complex and dynamic environments wherein instructive signals fluctuate on various timescales. Thus, cells must be equipped to properly respond to the timing of signals, for example, to distinguish sustained signaling from transient noise. However, how stem cells respond to dynamic variations in differentiation cues is not well characterized. Here, we use optogenetic activation of β-catenin signaling to probe the dynamic responses of differentiating adult neural stem cells (NSCs). We discover that, while elevated, sustained β-catenin activation sequentially promotes proliferation and differentiation, transient β-catenin induces apoptosis. Genetic perturbations revealed that the neurogenic/apoptotic fate switch was mediated through cell-cycle regulation by Growth Arrest and DNA Damage 45 gamma (Gadd45γ). Our results thus reveal a role for β-catenin dynamics in NSC fate decisions and may suggest a role for signal timing to minimize cell-fate errors, analogous to kinetic proofreading of stem-cell differentiation.
CL6mN: Rationally Designed Optogenetic Photoswitches with Tunable Dissociation Dynamics.
The field of optogenetics uses genetically encoded photoswitches to modulate biological phenomena with high spatiotemporal resolution. We report a set of rationally designed optogenetic photoswitches that use the photolyase homology region of A. thaliana cryptochrome 2 (Cry2PHR) as a building block and exhibit highly efficient and tunable clustering in a blue-light dependent manner. CL6mN (Cry2-mCherry-LRP6c with N mutated PPPAP motifs) proteins were designed by mutating and/or truncating five crucial PPP(S/T)P motifs near the C-terminus of the optogenetic Wnt activator Cry2-mCherry-LRP6c, thus eliminating its Wnt activity. Light-induced CL6mN clusters have significantly greater dissociation half-lives than clusters of wild-type Cry2PHR. Moreover, the dissociation half-lives can be tuned by varying the number of PPPAP motifs, with the half-life increasing as much as 6-fold for a variant with five motifs (CL6m5) relative to Cry2PHR. Finally, we demonstrate the compatibility of CL6mN with previously reported Cry2-based photoswitches by optogenetically activating RhoA in mammalian cells.
Engineered Illumination Devices for Optogenetic Control of Cellular Signaling Dynamics.
Spatially and temporally varying patterns of morphogen signals during development drive cell fate specification at the proper location and time. However, current in vitro methods typically do not allow for precise, dynamic spatiotemporal control of morphogen signaling and are thus insufficient to readily study how morphogen dynamics affect cell behavior. Here, we show that optogenetic Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation can be controlled at user-defined intensities, temporal sequences, and spatial patterns using engineered illumination devices for optogenetic photostimulation and light activation at variable amplitudes (LAVA). By patterning human embryonic stem cell (hESC) cultures with varying light intensities, LAVA devices enabled dose-responsive control of optoWnt activation and Brachyury expression. Furthermore, time-varying and spatially localized patterns of light revealed tissue patterning that models the embryonic presentation of Wnt signals in vitro. LAVA devices thus provide a low-cost, user-friendly method for high-throughput and spatiotemporal optogenetic control of cell signaling for applications in developmental and cell biology.
Optogenetic control of Wnt signaling for modeling early embryogenic patterning with human pluripotent stem cells.
The processes of cell proliferation, differentiation, migration, and self-organization during early embryonic development are governed by dynamic, spatially and temporally varying morphogen signals. Analogous tissue patterns emerge spontaneously in embryonic stem cell (ESC) models for gastrulation, but mechanistic insight into this self-organization is limited by a lack of molecular methods to precisely control morphogen signal dynamics. Here we combine optogenetic stimulation and single-cell imaging approaches to study self-organization of human pluripotent stem cells. Precise control of morphogen signal dynamics, achieved through activation of canonical Wnt/β-catenin signaling over a broad high dynamic range (>500-fold) using an optoWnt optogenetic system, drove broad transcriptional changes and mesendoderm differentiation of human ESCs at high efficiency (>95% cells). Furthermore, activating Wnt signaling in subpopulations of ESCs in 2D and 3D cultures induced cell self-organization and morphogenesis reminiscent of human gastrulation, including changes in cell migration and epithelial to mesenchymal transition. Our findings thus reveal an instructive role for Wnt in directing cell patterning in this ESC model for gastrulation.
Optogenetic tools for cell biological applications.
Abstract not available.
At Light Speed: Advances in Optogenetic Systems for Regulating Cell Signaling and Behavior.
Cells are bombarded by extrinsic signals that dynamically change in time and space. Such dynamic variations can exert profound effects on behaviors, including cellular signaling, organismal development, stem cell differentiation, normal tissue function, and disease processes such as cancer. Although classical genetic tools are well suited to introduce binary perturbations, new approaches have been necessary to investigate how dynamic signal variation may regulate cell behavior. This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetics, a field focused on engineering and harnessing light-sensitive proteins to interface with cellular signaling pathways. Channelrhodopsins initially defined optogenetics; however, through recent use of light-responsive proteins with myriad spectral and functional properties, practical applications of optogenetics currently encompass cell signaling, subcellular localization, and gene regulation. Now, important questions regarding signal integration within branch points of signaling networks, asymmetric cell responses to spatially restricted signals, and effects of signal dosage versus duration can be addressed. This review summarizes emerging technologies and applications within the expanding field of optogenetics.
Regulation of endogenous transmembrane receptors through optogenetic Cry2 clustering.
Transmembrane receptors are the predominant conduit through which cells sense and transduce extracellular information into intracellular biochemical signals. Current methods to control and study receptor function, however, suffer from poor resolution in space and time and often employ receptor overexpression, which can introduce experimental artefacts. We report a genetically encoded approach, termed Clustering Indirectly using Cryptochrome 2 (CLICR), for spatiotemporal control over endogenous transmembrane receptor activation, enabled through the optical regulation of target receptor clustering and downstream signalling using noncovalent interactions with engineered Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 (Cry2). CLICR offers a modular platform to enable photocontrol of the clustering of diverse transmembrane receptors including fibroblast growth factor receptor (FGFR), platelet-derived growth factor receptor (PDGFR) and integrins in multiple cell types including neural stem cells. Furthermore, light-inducible manipulation of endogenous receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) activity can modulate cell polarity and establish phototaxis in fibroblasts. The resulting spatiotemporal control over cellular signalling represents a powerful new optogenetic framework for investigating and controlling cell function and fate.
Bidirectional regulation of mRNA translation in mammalian cells by using PUF domains.
The regulation of gene expression is crucial in diverse areas of biological science, engineering, and medicine. A genetically encoded system based on the RNA binding domain of the Pumilio and FBF (PUF) proteins was developed for the bidirectional regulation (i.e., either upregulation or downregulation) of the translation of a target mRNA. PUF domains serve as designable scaffolds for the recognition of specific RNA elements and the specificity can be easily altered to target any 8-nucleotide RNA sequence. The expression of a reporter could be varied by over 17-fold when using PUF-based activators and repressors. The specificity of the method was established by using wild-type and mutant PUF domains. Furthermore, this method could be used to activate the translation of target mRNA downstream of PUF binding sites in a light-dependent manner. Such specific bidirectional control of mRNA translation could be particularly useful in the fields of synthetic biology, developmental biology, and metabolic engineering.
Light-inducible activation of target mRNA translation in mammalian cells.
A genetically encoded optogenetic system was constructed that activates mRNA translation in mammalian cells in response to light. Blue light induces the reconstitution of an RNA binding domain and a translation initiation domain, thereby activating target mRNA translation downstream of the binding sites.
Optogenetic protein clustering and signaling activation in mammalian cells.
We report an optogenetic method based on Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 for rapid and reversible protein oligomerization in response to blue light. We demonstrated its utility by photoactivating the β-catenin pathway, achieving a transcriptional response higher than that obtained with the natural ligand Wnt3a. We also demonstrated the modularity of this approach by photoactivating RhoA with high spatiotemporal resolution, thereby suggesting a previously unknown mode of activation for this Rho GTPase.