Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results
New approaches for solving old problems in neuronal protein trafficking.
Fundamental cellular properties are determined by the repertoire and abundance of proteins displayed on the cell surface. As such, the trafficking mechanisms for establishing and maintaining the surface proteome must be tightly regulated for cells to respond appropriately to extracellular cues, yet plastic enough to adapt to ever-changing environments. Not only are the identity and abundance of surface proteins critical, but in many cases, their regulated spatial positioning within surface nanodomains can greatly impact their function. In the context of neuronal cell biology, surface levels and positioning of ion channels and neurotransmitter receptors play essential roles in establishing important properties, including cellular excitability and synaptic strength. Here we review our current understanding of the trafficking pathways that control the abundance and localization of proteins important for synaptic function and plasticity, as well as recent technological advances that are allowing the field to investigate protein trafficking with increasing spatiotemporal precision.
Optogenetic Control of Synaptic Composition and Function.
The molecular composition of the postsynaptic membrane is sculpted by synaptic activity. During synaptic plasticity at excitatory synapses, numerous structural, signaling, and receptor molecules concentrate at the postsynaptic density (PSD) to regulate synaptic strength. We developed an approach that uses light to tune the abundance of specific molecules in the PSD. We used this approach to investigate the relationship between the number of AMPA-type glutamate receptors in the PSD and synaptic strength. Surprisingly, adding more AMPA receptors to excitatory contacts had little effect on synaptic strength. Instead, we observed increased excitatory input through the apparent addition of new functional sites. Our data support a model where adding AMPA receptors is sufficient to activate synapses that had few receptors to begin with, but that additional remodeling events are required to strengthen established synapses. More broadly, this approach introduces the precise spatiotemporal control of optogenetics to the molecular control of synaptic function.
Tuning the Binding Affinities and Reversion Kinetics of a Light Inducible Dimer Allows Control of Transmembrane Protein Localization.
Inducible dimers are powerful tools for controlling biological processes through colocalizing signaling molecules. To be effective, an inducible system should have a dissociation constant in the "off" state that is greater (i.e., weaker affinity) than the concentrations of the molecules that are being controlled, and in the "on" state a dissociation constant that is less (i.e., stronger affinity) than the relevant protein concentrations. Here, we reengineer the interaction between the light inducible dimer, iLID, and its binding partner SspB, to better control proteins present at high effective concentrations (5-100 μM). iLID contains a light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domain that undergoes a conformational change upon activation with blue light and exposes a peptide motif, ssrA, that binds to SspB. The new variant of the dimer system contains a single SspB point mutation (A58V), and displays a 42-fold change in binding affinity when activated with blue light (from 3 ± 2 μM to 125 ± 40 μM) and allows for light-activated colocalization of transmembrane proteins in neurons, where a higher affinity switch (0.8-47 μM) was less effective because more colocalization was seen in the dark. Additionally, with a point mutation in the LOV domain (N414L), we lengthened the reversion half-life of iLID. This expanded suite of light induced dimers increases the variety of cellular pathways that can be targeted with light.
An optimized optogenetic clustering tool for probing protein interaction and function.
The Arabidopsis photoreceptor cryptochrome 2 (CRY2) was previously used as an optogenetic module, allowing spatiotemporal control of cellular processes with light. Here we report the development of a new CRY2-derived optogenetic module, 'CRY2olig', which induces rapid, robust, and reversible protein oligomerization in response to light. Using this module, we developed a novel protein interaction assay, Light-Induced Co-clustering, that can be used to interrogate protein interaction dynamics in live cells. In addition to use probing protein interactions, CRY2olig can also be used to induce and reversibly control diverse cellular processes with spatial and temporal resolution. Here we demonstrate disrupting clathrin-mediated endocytosis and promoting Arp2/3-mediated actin polymerization with light. These new CRY2-based approaches expand the growing arsenal of optogenetic strategies to probe cellular function.
Tools for controlling protein interactions using light.
Genetically encoded actuators that allow control of protein-protein interactions using light, termed 'optical dimerizers', are emerging as new tools for experimental biology. In recent years, numerous new and versatile dimerizer systems have been developed. Here we discuss the design of optical dimerizer experiments, including choice of a dimerizer system, photoexcitation sources, and the coordinate use of imaging reporters. We provide detailed protocols for experiments using two dimerization systems we previously developed, CRY2/CIB and UVR8/UVR8, for use in controlling transcription, protein localization, and protein secretion using light. Additionally, we provide instructions and software for constructing a pulse-controlled LED device for use in experiments requiring extended light treatments.
A light-triggered protein secretion system.
Optical control of protein interactions has emerged as a powerful experimental paradigm for manipulating and studying various cellular processes. Tools are now available for controlling a number of cellular functions, but some fundamental processes, such as protein secretion, have been difficult to engineer using current optical tools. Here we use UVR8, a plant photoreceptor protein that forms photolabile homodimers, to engineer the first light-triggered protein secretion system. UVR8 fusion proteins were conditionally sequestered in the endoplasmic reticulum, and a brief pulse of light triggered robust forward trafficking through the secretory pathway to the plasma membrane. UVR8 was not responsive to excitation light used to image cyan, green, or red fluorescent protein variants, allowing multicolor visualization of cellular markers and secreted protein cargo as it traverses the cellular secretory pathway. We implemented this novel tool in neurons to demonstrate restricted, local trafficking of secretory cargo near dendritic branch points.
Rapid blue-light-mediated induction of protein interactions in living cells.
Dimerizers allowing inducible control of protein-protein interactions are powerful tools for manipulating biological processes. Here we describe genetically encoded light-inducible protein-interaction modules based on Arabidopsis thaliana cryptochrome 2 and CIB1 that require no exogenous ligands and dimerize on blue-light exposure with subsecond time resolution and subcellular spatial resolution. We demonstrate the utility of this system by inducing protein translocation, transcription and Cre recombinase-mediated DNA recombination using light.