Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 13 of 13 results
1.

Membrane dynamics induced by a PIP3 optogenetic tool.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Cos-7 HEK293 NIH/3T3 Signaling cascade control Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Anal Sci, 2 Nov 2018 DOI: 10.2116/analsci.18sdp06 Link to full text
Abstract: Membrane dynamic structures such as filopodia, lamellipodia, and ruffles have important cellular functions in phagocytosis and cell motility, and in pathological states such as cancer metastasis. Phosphatidylinositol 3,4,5-trisphosphate (PIP3) is a crucial lipid that regulates PIP3 dynamics. Investigations of how PIP3 is involved in these functions have mainly relied on pharmacological interventions, and therefore have not generated detailed spatiotemporal information of membrane dynamics upon PIP3 production. In the present study, we applied an optogenetic approach using the CRY2–CIBN system. Using this system, we revealed that local PIP3 generation induced directional cell motility and membrane ruffles in COS7 cells. Furthermore, combined with structured illumination microscopy (SIM), membrane dynamics were investigated with high spatial resolution. We observed PIP3-induced apical ruffles and unique actin fiber behavior in that a single actin fiber protruded from the plasma membrane was taken up into the plasma membrane without depolymerization. This system has the potential to investigate other high-level cell motility and dynamic behaviors such as cancer cell invasion and wound healing with high spatiotemporal resolution, and could provide new insights of biological sciences for membrane dynamics.
2.

Induction of signal transduction using non-channelrhodopsin-type optogenetic tools.

blue cyan near-infrared red UV Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Chembiochem, 25 Mar 2018 DOI: 10.1002/cbic.201700635 Link to full text
Abstract: Signal transductions are the basis for all cellular functions. Previous studies investigating signal transductions mainly relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies do not allow the modulation of protein activity in cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision. Recently, non-channelrhodopsin-type optogenetic tools for regulating signal transduction have emerged. These photoswitches address several disadvantages of previous techniques, and allow us to control a variety of signal transductions such as cell membrane dynamics, calcium signaling, lipid signaling, and apoptosis. In this review, we summarize recent advances in the development of such photoswitches and how these optotools are applied to signaling processes.
3.

Emerging approaches for spatiotemporal control of targeted genome with inducible CRISPR-Cas9.

blue cyan near-infrared red Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Anal Chem, 21 Nov 2017 DOI: 10.1021/acs.analchem.7b04757 Link to full text
Abstract: The breakthrough CRISPR (clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats)-Cas9 (CRISPR-associated protein 9) nuclease has revolutionized our ability in genome engineering. Although Cas9 is already a powerful tool for simple and efficient target endogenous gene manipulation, further engineering of Cas9 will improve the performance of Cas9, such as gene-editing efficiency and accuracy in vivo, and expand the application possibility of this Cas9 technology. The emerging inducible Cas9 methods, which can control the activity of Cas9 using an external stimulus such as chemicals and light, have the potential to provide spatiotemporal gene manipulation in user-defined cell population at a specific time and improve the accuracy of Cas9-mediated genome editing. In this review, we focus on the recent advance in inducible Cas9 technologies, especially light-inducible Cas9, and related methodologies, and also discuss future directions of this emerging tools.
4.

Cell membrane dynamics induction using optogenetic tools.

blue near-infrared red Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Biochem Biophys Res Commun, 16 Nov 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2017.11.091 Link to full text
Abstract: Structures arising from actin-based cell membrane movements, including ruffles, lamellipodia, and filopodia, play important roles in a broad spectrum of cellular functions, such as cell motility, axon guidance in neurons, wound healing, and micropinocytosis. Previous studies investigating these cell membrane dynamics often relied on pharmacological inhibition, RNA interference, and constitutive active/dominant negative protein expression systems. However, such studies did not allow the modulation of protein activity at specific regions of cells, tissues, and organs in animals with high spatial and temporal precision. Recently, optogenetic tools for inducing cell membrane dynamics have been developed which address several of the disadvantages of previous techniques. In a recent study, we developed a powerful optogenetic tool, called the Magnet system, to change cell membrane dynamics through Tiam1 and PIP3 signal transductions with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this review, we summarize recent advances in optogenetic tools that allow us to induce actin-regulated cell membrane dynamics and unique membrane ruffles that we discovered using our Magnet system.
5.

CRISPR-Cas9-based photoactivatable transcription systems to induce neuronal differentiation.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Magnets HEK293T HeLa human fetal fibroblasts human IPSCs Cell differentiation Endogenous gene expression
Nat Methods, 11 Sep 2017 DOI: 10.1038/nmeth.4430 Link to full text
Abstract: Our improved CRISPR-Cas9-based photoactivatable transcription systems, CPTS2.0 and Split-CPTS2.0, enable high blue-light-inducible activation of endogenous target genes in various human cell lines. We achieved reversible activation of target genes with CPTS2.0 and induced neuronal differentiation in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by upregulating NEUROD1 with Split-CPTS2.0.
6.

Assembly Domain-Based Optogenetic System for the Efficient Control of Cellular Signaling.

blue Magnets Cos-7 HEK293T Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
ACS Synth Biol, 3 Mar 2017 DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.7b00022 Link to full text
Abstract: We previously developed the Magnet system, which consists of two distinct Vivid protein variants, one positively and one negatively charged, designated the positive Magnet (pMag) and negative Magnet (nMag), respectively. These two proteins bind to each other through electrostatic interactions, preventing unwanted homodimerization and providing selective light-induced heterodimerization. The Magnet system enables the manipulation of cellular functions such as protein-protein interactions and genome editing, although the system could be improved further. To enhance the ability of pMagFast2 (a pMag variant with fast kinetics) to bind nMag, we introduced several pMagFast2 modules in tandem into a single construct, pMagFast2(3×). However, the expression level of this construct decreased drastically with increasing number of pMagFast2 molecules integrated into a single construct. In the present study, we applied a new approach to improve the Magnet system based on an assembly domain (AD). Among several ADs, the Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase IIα association domain (CAD) most enhanced the Magnet system. The present CAD-Magnet system overcame a trade-off issue between the expression level and binding affinity. The CAD-converged 12 pMag photoswitches exhibited a stronger interaction with nMag after blue light irradiation compared with monomeric pMag. Additionally, the CAD played a key role in converging effector proteins as well in a single complex. Owing to these substantial improvements, the CAD-Magnet system combined with Tiam1 allowed us to robustly induce localized formation of vertical ruffles on the apical plasma membrane. The CAD-Magnet system combined with 4D imaging was instrumental in revealing the dynamics of ruffle formation.
7.

Optical manipulation of the alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins using photoswitchable dimerization systems.

blue red Magnets PhyB/PIF6 Cos-7 HEK293 HeLa Immediate control of second messengers
Sci Rep, 21 Oct 2016 DOI: 10.1038/srep35777 Link to full text
Abstract: Alpha subunits of heterotrimeric G proteins (Gα) are involved in a variety of cellular functions. Here we report an optogenetic strategy to spatially and temporally manipulate Gα in living cells. More specifically, we applied the blue light-induced dimerization system, known as the Magnet system, and an alternative red light-induced dimerization system consisting of Arabidopsis thaliana phytochrome B (PhyB) and phytochrome-interacting factor 6 (PIF6) to optically control the activation of two different classes of Gα (Gαq and Gαs). By utilizing this strategy, we demonstrate successful regulation of Ca(2+) and cAMP using light in mammalian cells. The present strategy is generally applicable to different kinds of Gα and could contribute to expanding possibilities of spatiotemporal regulation of Gα in mammalian cells.
8.

A photoactivatable Cre-loxP recombination system for optogenetic genome engineering.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Magnets CHO-K1 Cos-7 HEK293 HeLa mouse in vivo NIH/3T3
Nat Chem Biol, 10 Oct 2016 DOI: 10.1038/nchembio.2205 Link to full text
Abstract: Genome engineering techniques represented by the Cre-loxP recombination system have been used extensively for biomedical research. However, powerful and useful techniques for genome engineering that have high spatiotemporal precision remain elusive. Here we develop a highly efficient photoactivatable Cre recombinase (PA-Cre) to optogenetically control genome engineering in vivo. PA-Cre is based on the reassembly of split Cre fragments by light-inducible dimerization of the Magnet system. PA-Cre enables sharp induction (up to 320-fold) of DNA recombination and is efficiently activated even by low-intensity illumination (∼0.04 W m(-2)) or short periods of pulsed illumination (∼30 s). We demonstrate that PA-Cre allows for efficient DNA recombination in an internal organ of living mice through noninvasive external illumination using a LED light source. The present PA-Cre provides a powerful tool to greatly facilitate optogenetic genome engineering in vivo.
9.

Photoactivatable CRISPR-Cas9 for optogenetic genome editing.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Magnets HEK293T HeLa Nucleic acid editing
Nat Biotechnol, 15 Jun 2015 DOI: 10.1038/nbt.3245 Link to full text
Abstract: We describe an engineered photoactivatable Cas9 (paCas9) that enables optogenetic control of CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing in human cells. paCas9 consists of split Cas9 fragments and photoinducible dimerization domains named Magnets. In response to blue light irradiation, paCas9 expressed in human embryonic kidney 293T cells induces targeted genome sequence modifications through both nonhomologous end joining and homology-directed repair pathways. Genome editing activity can be switched off simply by extinguishing the light. We also demonstrate activation of paCas9 in spatial patterns determined by the sites of irradiation. Optogenetic control of targeted genome editing should facilitate improved understanding of complex gene networks and could prove useful in biomedical applications.
10.

Engineered pairs of distinct photoswitches for optogenetic control of cellular proteins.

blue Magnets VVD Cos-7 NIH/3T3 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Nat Commun, 24 Feb 2015 DOI: 10.1038/ncomms7256 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic methods take advantage of photoswitches to control the activity of cellular proteins. Here, we completed a multi-directional engineering of the fungal photoreceptor Vivid to develop pairs of distinct photoswitches named Magnets. These new photoswitches were engineered to recognize each other based on the electrostatic interactions, thus preventing homodimerization and enhancing light-induced heterodimerization. Furthermore, we tuned the switch-off kinetics by four orders of magnitude and developed several variants, including those with substantially faster kinetics than any of the other conventional dimerization-based blue spectrum photoswitches. We demonstrate the utility of Magnets as powerful tools that can optogenetically manipulate molecular processes in biological systems.
11.

CRISPR-Cas9-based photoactivatable transcription system.

blue CRY2/CIB1 Cos-7 HEK293 HEK293T HeLa Endogenous gene expression
Chem Biol, 22 Jan 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.chembiol.2014.12.011 Link to full text
Abstract: Targeted endogenous gene activation is necessary for understanding complex gene networks and has great potential in medical and industrial applications. The CRISPR-Cas system offers simple and powerful tools for this purpose. However, these CRISPR-Cas-based tools for activating user-defined genes are unable to offer precise temporal control of gene expression, despite the fact that many biological phenomena are regulated by highly dynamic patterns of gene expression. Here we created a light-inducible, user-defined, endogenous gene activation system based on CRISPR-Cas9. We demonstrated that this CRISPR-Cas9-based transcription system can allow rapid and reversible targeted gene activation by light. In addition, using this system, we have exemplified photoactivation of multiple user-defined endogenous genes in mammalian cells. The present CRISPR-Cas9-based transcription system offers simple and versatile approaches for precise endogenous gene activation in basic biological research and biotechnology applications.
12.

Genetically engineered photoinducible homodimerization system with improved dimer-forming efficiency.

blue VVD Cos-7 HEK293 Cell death
ACS Chem Biol, 17 Jan 2014 DOI: 10.1021/cb400836k Link to full text
Abstract: Vivid (VVD) is a photoreceptor derived from Neurospora Crassa that rapidly forms a homodimer in response to blue light. Although VVD has several advantages over other photoreceptors as photoinducible homodimerization system, VVD has a critical limitation in its low dimer-forming efficiency. To overcome this limitation of wild-type VVD, here we conduct site-directed saturation mutagenesis in the homodimer interface of VVD. We have found that the Ile52Cys mutation of VVD (VVD-52C) substantially improves its homodimer-forming efficiency up to 180%. We have demonstrated the utility of VVD-52C for making a light-inducible gene expression system more robust. In addition, using VVD-52C, we have developed photoactivatable caspase-9, which enables optical control of apoptosis of mammalian cells. The present genetically engineered photoinducible homodimerization system can provide a powerful tool to optically control a broad range of molecular processes in the cell.
13.

Fluorescence imaging-based high-throughput screening of fast- and slow-cycling LOV proteins.

blue LOV domains Background
PLoS ONE, 18 Dec 2013 DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082693 Link to full text
Abstract: Light-oxygen-voltage (LOV) domains function as blue light-inducible molecular switches. The photosensory LOV domains derived from plants and fungi have provided an indispensable tool for optogenetics. Here we develop a high-throughput screening system to efficiently improve switch-off kinetics of LOV domains. The present system is based on fluorescence imaging of thermal reversion of a flavin cofactor bound to LOV domains. We conducted multi site-directed random mutagenesis of seven amino acid residues surrounding the flavin cofactor of the second LOV domain derived from Avena sativa phototropin 1 (AsLOV2). The gene library was introduced into Escherichia coli cells. Then thermal reversion of AsLOV2 variants, respectively expressed in different bacterial colonies on agar plate, was imaged with a stereoscopic fluorescence microscope. Based on the mutagenesis and imaging-based screening, we isolated 12 different variants showing substantially faster thermal reversion kinetics than wild-type AsLOV2. Among them, AsLOV2-V416T exhibited thermal reversion with a time constant of 2.6 s, 21-fold faster than wild-type AsLOV2. With a slight modification of the present approach, we also have efficiently isolated 8 different decelerated variants, represented by AsLOV2-V416L that exhibited thermal reversion with a time constant of 4.3 × 10(3) s (78-fold slower than wild-type AsLOV2). The present approach based on fluorescence imaging of the thermal reversion of the flavin cofactor is generally applicable to a variety of blue light-inducible molecular switches and may provide a new opportunity for the development of molecular tools for emerging optogenetics.
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