Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results
Crucial Residue for Tuning Thermal Relaxation Kinetics in the Biliverdin-binding Cyanobacteriochrome Photoreceptor Revealed by Site-saturation Mutagenesis.
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are cyanobacterial photoreceptors distantly related to the phytochromes sensing red and far-red light reversibly. Only the cGMP phosphodiesterase/Adenylate cyclase/FhlA (GAF) domain is needed for chromophore incorporation and proper photoconversion. The CBCR GAF domains covalently ligate linear tetrapyrrole chromophores and show reversible photoconversion between two light-absorbing states. In most cases, the two light-absorbing states are stable under dark conditions, but in some cases, the photoproduct state undergoes thermal relaxation back to the dark-adapted state during thermal relaxation. In this study, we examined the engineered CBCR GAF domain, AnPixJg2_BV4. AnPixJg2_BV4 covalently binds biliverdin IX-alpha (BV) and shows reversible photoconversion between a far-red-absorbing Pfr dark-adapted state and an orange-absorbing Po photoproduct state. Because the BV is an intrinsic chromophore of mammalian cells and absorbs far-red light penetrating into deep tissues, BV-binding CBCR molecules are useful for the development of optogenetic and bioimaging tools used in mammals. To obtain a better developmental platform molecule, we performed site-saturation random mutagenesis on the Phe319 position. We succeeded in obtaining variant molecules with higher chromophore-binding efficiency and higher molar extinction coefficient. Furthermore, we observed a wide variation in thermal relaxation kinetics, with an 81-fold difference between the slowest and fastest rates. Both molecules with relatively slow and fast thermal relaxation would be advantageous for optogenetic control.
Introduction of reversible cysteine ligation ability to the biliverdin-binding cyanobacteriochrome photoreceptor.
Cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) photoreceptors are distantly related to the canonical red/far-red reversible phytochrome photoreceptors. In the case of the CBCRs, only the GAF domain is required for chromophore incorporation and photoconversion. The GAF domains of CBCR are highly diversified into many lineages to sense various colors of light. These CBCR GAF domains are divided into two types: those possessing only the canonical Cys residue and those with both canonical and second Cys residues. The canonical Cys residue stably ligates to the chromophore in both cases. The second Cys residue mostly shows reversible adduct formation with the chromophore during photoconversion for spectral tuning. In this study, we focused on the CBCR GAF domain AnPixJg2_BV4, which possesses only the canonical Cys residue. AnPixJg2_BV4 covalently ligates to the biliverdin (BV) chromophore and shows far-red/orange reversible photoconversion. Because BV is a mammalian intrinsic chromophore, BV-binding molecules are advantageous for in vivo optogenetic and bioimaging tool development. To obtain a better developmental platform molecule, we performed site-saturation random mutagenesis and serendipitously obtained a unique variant molecule that showed far-red/blue reversible photoconversion, in which the Cys residue was introduced near the chromophore. This introduced Cys residue functioned as the second Cys residue that reversibly ligated with the chromophore. Because the position of the introduced Cys residue is distinct from the known second Cys residues, the variant molecule obtained in this study would expand our knowledge about the spectral tuning mechanism of CBCRs and contribute to tool development.
A red light-responsive photoswitch for deep tissue optogenetics.
Red light penetrates deep into mammalian tissues and has low phototoxicity, but few optogenetic tools that use red light have been developed. Here we present MagRed, a red light-activatable photoswitch that consists of a red light-absorbing bacterial phytochrome incorporating a mammalian endogenous chromophore, biliverdin and a photo-state-specific binder that we developed using Affibody library selection. Red light illumination triggers the binding of the two components of MagRed and the assembly of split-proteins fused to them. Using MagRed, we developed a red light-activatable Cre recombinase, which enables light-activatable DNA recombination deep in mammalian tissues. We also created red light-inducible transcriptional regulators based on CRISPR-Cas9 that enable an up to 378-fold activation (average, 135-fold induction) of multiple endogenous target genes. MagRed will facilitate optogenetic applications deep in mammalian organisms in a variety of biological research areas.
Phytochromes and Cyanobacteriochromes: Photoreceptor Molecules Incorporating a Linear Tetrapyrrole Chromophore.
In this chapter, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of the linear tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors, phytochromes, and cyanobacteriochromes. We especially focus on the color-tuning mechanisms and conformational changes during the photoconversion process. Furthermore, we introduce current status of development of the optogenetic tools based on these molecules. Huge repertoire of these photoreceptors with diverse spectral properties would contribute to development of multiplex optogenetic regulation. Among them, the photoreceptors incorporating the biliverdin IXα chromophore is advantageous for in vivo optogenetics because this is intrinsic in the mammalian cells, and absorbs far-red light penetrating into deep mammalian tissues.
Distinctive Properties of Dark Reversion Kinetics between Two Red/Green-Type Cyanobacteriochromes and their Application in the Photoregulation of cAMP Synthesis.
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are photoreceptors that bind to a linear tetrapyrrole within a conserved cGMP-phosphodiesterase/adenylate cyclase/FhlA (GAF) domain and exhibit reversible photoconversion. Red/green-type CBCR GAF domains that photoconvert between red- (Pr) and green-absorbing (Pg) forms occur widely in various cyanobacteria. A putative phototaxis regulator, AnPixJ, contains multiple red/green-type CBCR GAF domains. We previously reported that AnPixJ's second domain (AnPixJg2) but not its fourth domain (AnPixJg4) shows red/green reversible photoconversion. Herein, we found that AnPixJg4 showed Pr-to-Pg photoconversion and rapid Pg-to-Pr dark reversion, whereas AnPixJg2 showed a barely detectable dark reversion. Site-directed mutagenesis revealed the involvement of six residues in Pg stability. Replacement at the Leu294/Ile660 positions of AnPixJg2/AnPixJg4 showed the highest influence on dark reversion kinetics. AnPixJg2_DR6, wherein the six residues of AnPixJg2 were entirely replaced with those of AnPixJg4, showed a 300-fold faster dark reversion than that of the wild type. We constructed chimeric proteins by fusing the GAF domains with adenylate cyclase catalytic regions, such as AnPixJg2-AC, AnPixJg4-AC and AnPixJg2_DR6-AC. We detected successful enzymatic activation under red light for both AnPixJg2-AC and AnPixJg2_DR6-AC, and repression under green light for AnPixJg2-AC and under dark incubation for AnPixJg2_DR6-AC. These results provide platforms to develop cAMP synthetic optogenetic tools.
Photoconversion and Fluorescence Properties of a Red/Green-Type Cyanobacteriochrome AM1_C0023g2 That Binds Not Only Phycocyanobilin But Also Biliverdin.
Cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs) are distantly related to the red/far-red responsive phytochromes. Red/green-type CBCRs are widely distributed among various cyanobacteria. The red/green-type CBCRs covalently bind phycocyanobilin (PCB) and show red/green reversible photoconversion. Recent studies revealed that some red/green-type CBCRs from chlorophyll d-bearing cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina covalently bind not only PCB but also biliverdin (BV). The BV-binding CBCRs show far-red/orange reversible photoconversion. Here, we identified another CBCR (AM1_C0023g2) from A. marina that also covalently binds not only PCB but also BV with high binding efficiencies, although BV chromophore is unstable in the presence of urea. Replacement of Ser334 with Gly resulted in significant improvement in the yield of the BV-binding holoprotein, thereby ensuring that the mutant protein is a fine platform for future development of optogenetic switches. We also succeeded in detecting near-infrared fluorescence from mammalian cells harboring PCB-binding AM1_C0023g2 whose fluorescence quantum yield is 3.0%. Here the PCB-binding holoprotein is shown as a platform for future development of fluorescent probes.
Cyanobacteriochrome CcaS is the green light receptor that induces the expression of phycobilisome linker protein.
Cyanobacteriochromes are a newly recognized group of photoreceptors that are distinct relatives of phytochromes but are found only in cyanobacteria. A putative cyanobacteriochrome, CcaS, is known to chromatically regulate the expression of the phycobilisome linker gene (cpcG2) in Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803. In this study, we isolated the chromophore-binding domain of CcaS from Synechocystis as well as from phycocyanobilin-producing Escherichia coli. Both preparations showed the same reversible photoconversion between a green-absorbing form (Pg, lambda(max) = 535 nm) and a red-absorbing form (Pr, lambda(max) = 672 nm). Mass spectrometry and denaturation analyses suggested that Pg and Pr bind phycocyanobilin in a double-bond configuration of C15-Z and C15-E, respectively. Autophosphorylation activity of the histidine kinase domain in nearly full-length CcaS was up-regulated by preirradiation with green light. Similarly, phosphotransfer to the cognate response regulator, CcaR, was higher in Pr than in Pg. From these results, we conclude that CcaS phosphorylates CcaR under green light and induces expression of cpcG2, leading to accumulation of CpcG2-phycobilisome as a chromatic acclimation system. CcaS is the first recognized green light receptor in the expanded phytochrome superfamily, which includes phytochromes and cyanobacteriochromes.