Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 4 of 4 results

Lifelong molecular consequences of high Glucocorticoids exposure during development

blue bPAC (BlaC) zebrafish in vivo Developmental processes Immediate control of second messengers
bioRxiv, 9 Jan 2024 DOI: 10.1101/2023.02.13.528363 Link to full text
Abstract: Early life stress (ELS) is one of the strongest risk factors for developing psychiatric disorders in humans. As conserved key stress hormones of vertebrates, glucocorticoids (GCs) are thought to play an important role in mediating the effects of ELS exposure in shaping adult phenotypes. In this process, early exposure to high level of GCs may induce molecular changes that alter developmental trajectory of an animal and primes differential adult responses. However, comprehensive characterization of identities of molecules that are targeted by developmental GC exposure is currently lacking. In our study, we describe lifelong molecular consequences of high level of developmental GC exposure using an optogenetic zebrafish model. First, we developed a new double-hit stress model using zebrafish by combining exposure to a high endogenous GC level during development and acute adulthood stress exposure. Our results establish that similar to ELS-exposed humans and rodents, developmental GC exposed zebrafish model shows altered behavior and stress hypersensitivity in adulthood. Second, we generated time-series gene expression profiles of the brains in larvae, in adult, and upon stress exposure to identify molecular alterations induced by high developmental GC exposure at different developmental stages. Third, we identify a set of GC-primed genes that show altered expression upon acute stress exposure only in animals exposed to a high developmental GC. Interestingly, our datasets of GC primed genes are enriched in risk factors identified for human psychiatric disorders. Lastly, we identify potential epigenetic regulatory elements and associated post-transcriptional modifications following high developmental GC exposure. Thus, we present a translationally relevant zebrafish model for studying stress hypersensitivity and alteration of behavior induced by exposure to elevated GC levels during development. Our study provides comprehensive datasets delineating potential molecular targets underlying the impact of developmental high GC exposure on adult responses.

Manipulation of Interrenal Cell Function in Developing Zebrafish Using Genetically Targeted Ablation and an Optogenetic Tool.

blue bPAC (BlaC) zebrafish in vivo Immediate control of second messengers
Endocrinology, 1 Jul 2015 DOI: 10.1210/en.2015-1021 Link to full text
Abstract: Zebrafish offer an opportunity to study conserved mechanisms underlying the ontogeny and physiology of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis. As the final effector of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/interrenal axis, glucocorticoids exert both rapid and long-term regulatory functions. To elucidate their specific effects in zebrafish, transgenic approaches are necessary to complement pharmacological studies. Here, we report a robust approach to specifically manipulate endogenous concentrations of cortisol by targeting heterologous proteins to interrenal cells using a promoter element of the steroidogenic acute regulatory protein. To test this approach, we first used this regulatory region to generate a transgenic line expressing the bacterial nitroreductase protein, which allows conditional targeted ablation of interrenal cells. We demonstrate that this line can be used to specifically ablate interrenal cells, drastically reducing both basal and stress-induced cortisol concentrations. Next, we coupled this regulatory region to an optogenetic actuator, Beggiatoa photoactivated adenylyl cyclase, to increase endogenous cortisol concentrations in a blue light-dependent manner. Thus, our approach allows specific manipulations of steroidogenic interrenal cell activity for studying the effects of both hypo- and hypercortisolemia in zebrafish.

Engineering of a red-light-activated human cAMP/cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase.

red LAPD CHO in vitro zebrafish in vivo Immediate control of second messengers
Proc Natl Acad Sci USA, 2 Jun 2014 DOI: 10.1073/pnas.1321600111 Link to full text
Abstract: Sensory photoreceptors elicit vital physiological adaptations in response to incident light. As light-regulated actuators, photoreceptors underpin optogenetics, which denotes the noninvasive, reversible, and spatiotemporally precise perturbation by light of living cells and organisms. Of particular versatility, naturally occurring photoactivated adenylate cyclases promote the synthesis of the second messenger cAMP under blue light. Here, we have engineered a light-activated phosphodiesterase (LAPD) with complementary light sensitivity and catalytic activity by recombining the photosensor module of Deinococcus radiodurans bacterial phytochrome with the effector module of Homo sapiens phosphodiesterase 2A. Upon red-light absorption, LAPD up-regulates hydrolysis of cAMP and cGMP by up to sixfold, whereas far-red light can be used to down-regulate activity. LAPD also mediates light-activated cAMP and cGMP hydrolysis in eukaryotic cell cultures and in zebrafish embryos; crucially, the biliverdin chromophore of LAPD is available endogenously and does not need to be provided exogenously. LAPD thus establishes a new optogenetic modality that permits light control over diverse cAMP/cGMP-mediated physiological processes. Because red light penetrates tissue more deeply than light of shorter wavelengths, LAPD appears particularly attractive for studies in living organisms.

Optogenetic elevation of endogenous glucocorticoid level in larval zebrafish.

blue bPAC (BlaC) zebrafish in vivo Immediate control of second messengers Neuronal activity control
Front Neural Circuits, 6 May 2013 DOI: 10.3389/fncir.2013.00082 Link to full text
Abstract: The stress response is a suite of physiological and behavioral processes that help to maintain or reestablish homeostasis. Central to the stress response is the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, as it releases crucial hormones in response to stress. Glucocorticoids (GCs) are the final effector hormones of the HPA axis, and exert a variety of actions under both basal and stress conditions. Despite their far-reaching importance for health, specific GC effects have been difficult to pin-down due to a lack of methods for selectively manipulating endogenous GC levels. Hence, in order to study stress-induced GC effects, we developed a novel optogenetic approach to selectively manipulate the rise of GCs triggered by stress. Using this approach, we could induce both transient hypercortisolic states and persistent forms of hypercortisolaemia in freely behaving larval zebrafish. Our results also established that transient hypercortisolism leads to enhanced locomotion shortly after stressor exposure. Altogether, we present a highly specific method for manipulating the gain of the stress axis with high temporal accuracy, altering endocrine and behavioral responses to stress as well as basal GC levels. Our study offers a powerful tool for the analysis of rapid (non-genomic) and delayed (genomic) GC effects on brain function and behavior, feedbacks within the stress axis and developmental programming by GCs.
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