The importance of cell-cell interaction dynamics in bottom-up tissue engineering: Concepts of colloidal self-assembly in the fabrication of multicellular architectures.
Abstract: Building tissue from cells as the basic building block based on principles of self-assembly is a challenging and promising approach. Understanding how far principles of self-assembly and self-sorting known for colloidal particles apply to cells remains unanswered. In this study, we demonstrate that not just controlling the cell-cell interactions but also their dynamics is a crucial factor that determines the formed multicellular structure, using photoswitchable interactions between cells that are activated with blue light and reverse in the dark. Tuning dynamics of the cell-cell interactions by pulsed light activation, results in multicellular architectures with different sizes and shapes. When the interactions between cells are dynamic compact and round multicellular clusters under thermodynamic control form, while otherwise branched and lose aggregates under kinetic control assemble. These structures parallel what is known for colloidal assemblies under reaction and diffusion limited cluster aggregation, respectively. Similarly, dynamic interactions between cells are essential for cells to self-sort into distinct groups. Using four different cell types, which expressed two orthogonal cell-cell interaction pairs, the cells sorted into two separate assemblies. Bringing concepts of colloidal self-assembly to bottom-up tissue engineering provides a new theoretical framework and will help in the design of more predictable tissue-like structures.