Showing 1 - 7 of 7 results
Multiomics and optobiotechnological approaches for the development of microalgal strain for production of aviation biofuel and biorefinery.
Demand and consumption of fossil fuels is increasing daily, and oil reserves are depleting. Technological developments are required towards developing sustainable renewable energy sources and microalgae are emerging as a potential candidate for various application-driven research. Molecular understanding attained through omics and system biology approach empowering researchers to modify various metabolic pathways of microalgal system for efficient extraction of biofuel and important biomolecules. This review furnish insight into different "advanced approaches" like optogenetics, systems biology and multi-omics for enhanced production of FAS (Fatty Acid Synthesis) and lipids in microalgae and their associated challenges. These new approaches would be helpful in the path of developing microalgae inspired technological platforms for optobiorefinery, which could be explored as source material to produce biofuels and other valuable bio-compounds on a large scale.
Optogenetic modulation of real-time nanoscale dynamics of HCN channels using photoactivated adenylyl cyclases.
Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) is a key second messenger that activates several signal transduction pathways in eukaryotic cells. Alteration of basal levels of cAMP is known to activate protein kinases, regulate phosphodiesterases and modulate the activity of ion channels such as Hyper polarization-activated cyclic nucleotide gated channels (HCN). Recent advances in optogenetics have resulted in the availability of novel genetically encoded molecules with the capability to alter cytoplasmic profiles of cAMP with unprecedented spatial and temporal precision. Using single molecule based super-resolution microscopy and different optogenetic modulators of cellular cAMP in both live and fixed cells, we illustrate a novel paradigm to report alteration in nanoscale confinement of ectopically expressed HCN channels. We characterized the efficacy of cAMP generation using ensemble photoactivation of different optogenetic modulators. Then we demonstrate that local modulation of cAMP alters the exchange of membrane bound HCN channels with its nanoenvironment. Additionally, using high density single particle tracking in combination with both acute and chronic optogenetic elevation of cAMP in the cytoplasm, we show that HCN channels are confined to sub 100 nm sized functional domains on the plasma membrane. The nanoscale properties of these domains along with the exchange kinetics of HCN channels in and out of these molecular zones are altered upon temporal changes in the cytoplasmic cAMP. Using HCN2 point mutants and a truncated construct of HCN2 with altered sensitivity to cAMP, we confirmed these alterations in lateral organization of HCN2 to be specific to cAMP binding. Thus, combining these advanced non-invasive paradigms, we report a cAMP dependent ensemble and single particle behavior of HCN channels mediated by its cyclic nucleotide binding domain, opening innovative ways to dissect biochemical pathways at the nanoscale and real-time in living cells.
Modulation of cyclic nucleotide-mediated cellular signaling and gene expression using photoactivated adenylyl cyclase as an optogenetic tool.
Cyclic nucleotide signaling pathway plays a significant role in various biological processes such as cell growth, transcription, inflammation, in microbial pathogenesis, etc. Modulation of cyclic nucleotide levels by optogenetic tools has overcome certain limitations of studying transduction cascade by pharmacological agents and has allowed several ways to modulate biological processes in a spatiotemporal manner. Here, we have shown the optogenetic modulation of the cyclooxygenase 2 (Cox-2) gene expression and their downstream effector molecule (PGE2) in HEK-293T cells and the development process of Dictyostelium discoideum via modulating the cyclic nucleotide (cAMP) signaling pathway utilizing photoactivated adenylyl cyclases (PACs) as an optogenetic tool. Light-induced activation of PACs in HEK-293T cells increases the cAMP level that leads to activation of cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcription factor and further upregulates downstream Cox-2 gene expression and their downstream effector molecule prostaglandin E2. In D. discoideum, the light-regulated increase in cAMP level affects the starvation-induced developmental process. These PACs could modulate the cAMP levels in a light-dependent manner and have a potential to control gene expression and their downstream effector molecules with varying magnitude. It would enable one to utilize PAC as a tool to decipher cyclic nucleotide mediated signaling pathway regulations and their mechanism.
Photo-dynamics of photoactivated adenylyl cyclase TpPAC from the spirochete bacterium Turneriella parva strain H(T).
The photoactivated adenylyl cyclase TpPAC from the spirochete bacterium Turneriella parva was synthesized and the purified recombinant protein was characterized by biochemical and optical spectroscopic methods. TpPAC consists of a BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) and an adenylyl cyclase homology domain (CHD). A light induced cAMP cyclase activity of ≈ 53.3 nmolmg(-1)min(-1) was measured while in the dark the cyclase activity was approximately a factor of 240 lower. The photo-cycling dynamics of the BLUF domain of TpPAC was studied by absorption spectra, fluorescence quantum distribution, and fluorescence lifetime measurements. The quantum efficiency of BLUF domain signaling state formation was found to be ϕs ≈ 0.59. A three-component exponential recovery of the signaling state to the receptor state was observed with the time constants τrec,1 = 4.8s, τrec,2 = 34.2s, and τrec,3 = 293s at 21.3 °C. The protein thermal stability was studied by stepwise sample heating and cooling. An apparent TpPAC melting temperature of ϑm ≈ 46 °C was determined. The photo-degradation of TpPAC in the signaling state was studied by prolonged intense light exposure at 455 nm. An irreversible flavin photo-degradation was observed with quantum yield ϕD ≈ 8.7 × 10(-6).
Photo-dynamics of BLUF domain containing adenylyl cyclase NgPAC3 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain.
The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of the photo-activated adenylyl cyclase NgPAC3 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain was studied. The flavin cofactor was found to be partly fully oxidized and partly fully reduced. The typical BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) oxidized flavin absorption photo-cycle dynamics with about 14 nm flavin absorption red-shift in the signaling state was observed. The quantum efficiency of signaling state formation was determined to be s = 0.66 ± 0.03. A bi-exponential signaling state recovery to the dark-adapted receptor state was observed with the time constants rec,f = 275 s and rec,sl = 45 min. The thermal irreversible protein unfolding was studied and an apparent protein melting temperature of ϑm ≈ 50 ◦C was found. The photodynamic behavior of NgPAC3 is compared with the behavior of the previously investigated photo-activated cyclases NgPAC1 (nPAC) and NgPAC2 from the same N. gruberi NEG-M strain. Purified recombinant NgPAC3 showed light-gated adenylate cyclase activity upon illumination with blue light. Its cyclase activity is compared with those of NgPAC1 and NgPAC2.
Photo-dynamics and thermal behavior of the BLUF domain containing adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain.
The absorption and emission spectroscopic behavior of the photo-activated adenylate cyclase NgPAC2 from the amoeboflagellate Naegleria gruberi NEG-M strain was studied in the dark, during blue-light exposure and after blue-light exposure. The typical BLUF domain (BLUF = Blue Light sensor Using Flavin) flavin cofactor absorption and fluorescence photo-cycle dynamics was observed. For fresh samples a reversible concentration dependent protein oligomerization occurred showing up in free flavin binding and protein color center formation with increasing protein concentration. Thermal and temporal irreversible protein unfolding with loss of BLUF domain activity was investigated. Temperature dependent protein melting times and the apparent protein melting temperature were determined. The photodynamic behavior of the NgPAC2 is compared with the behavior of the previously investigated photo-activated cyclase NgPAC1 (nPAC) from the same N. gruberi NEG-M strain.
Fast manipulation of cellular cAMP level by light in vivo.
The flagellate Euglena gracilis contains a photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC), consisting of the flavoproteins PACalpha and PACbeta. Here we report functional expression of PACs in Xenopus laevis oocytes, HEK293 cells and in Drosophila melanogaster, where neuronal expression yields light-induced changes in behavior. The activity of PACs is strongly and reversibly enhanced by blue light, providing a powerful tool for light-induced manipulation of cAMP in animal cells.