Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results
Engineering Photoresponsive Ligand Tethers for Mechanical Regulation of Stem Cells.
Regulating stem cell functions by precisely controlling the nanoscale presentation of bioactive ligands has a substantial impact on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine but remains a major challenge. Here it is shown that bioactive ligands can become mechanically "invisible" by increasing their tether lengths to the substrate beyond a critical length, providing a way to regulate mechanotransduction without changing the biochemical conditions. Building on this finding, light switchable tethers are rationally designed, whose lengths can be modulated reversibly by switching a light-responsive protein, pdDronpa, in between monomer and dimer states. This allows the regulation of the adhesion, spreading, and differentiation of stem cells by light on substrates of well-defined biochemical and physical properties. Spatiotemporal regulation of differential cell fates on the same substrate is further demonstrated, which may represent an important step toward constructing complex organoids or mini tissues by spatially defining the mechanical cues of the cellular microenvironment with light.
Hydrogels With Tunable Mechanical Properties Based on Photocleavable Proteins.
Hydrogels with photo-responsive mechanical properties have found broad biomedical applications, including delivering bioactive molecules, cell culture, biosensing, and tissue engineering. Here, using a photocleavable protein, PhoCl, as the crosslinker we engineer two types of poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogels whose mechanical stability can be weakened or strengthened, respectively, upon visible light illumination. In the photo weakening hydrogels, photocleavage leads to rupture of the protein crosslinkers, and decrease of the mechanical properties of the hydrogels. In contrast, in the photo strengthening hydrogels, by properly choosing the crosslinking positions, photocleavage does not rupture the crosslinking sites but exposes additional cryptical reactive cysteine residues. When reacting with extra maleimide groups in the hydrogel network, the mechanical properties of the hydrogels can be enhanced upon light illumination. Our study indicates that photocleavable proteins could provide more designing possibilities than the small-molecule counterparts. A proof-of-principle demonstration of spatially controlling the mechanical properties of hydrogels was also provided.
Reversible hydrogels with tunable mechanical properties for optically controlling cell migration.
Synthetic hydrogels are widely used as biomimetic in vitro model systems to understand how cells respond to complex microenvironments. The mechanical properties of hydrogels are deterministic for many cellular behaviors, including cell migration, spreading, and differentiation. However, it remains a major challenge to engineer hydrogels that recapture the dynamic mechanical properties of native extracellular matrices. Here, we provide a new hydrogel platform with spatiotemporally tunable mechanical properties to assay and define cellular behaviors under light. The change in the mechanical properties of the hydrogel is effected by a photo-induced switch of the cross-linker fluorescent protein, Dronpa145N, between the tetrameric and monomeric states, which causes minimal changes to the chemical properties of the hydrogel. The mechanical properties can be rapidly and reversibly tuned for multiple cycles using visible light, as confirmed by rheological measurements and atomic force microscopybased nano-indentation. We further demonstrated real-time and reversible modulation of cell migration behaviors on the hydrogels through photo-induced stiffness switching, with minimal invasion to the cultured cells. Hydrogels with a programmable mechanical history and a spatially defined mechanical hierarchy might serve as an ideal model system to better understand complex cellular functions.
A light-switchable bidirectional expression system in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.
The filamentous fungi Trichoderma reesei is widely used in the production of cellulolytic enzymes and recombinant proteins. However, only moderate success has been achieved in expressing heterologous proteins in T. reesei. Light-dependent control of DNA transcription, and protein expression have been demonstrated in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In this study, light inducible transactivators, a "light-on" bidirectional promoter and a "light-off" promoter were constructed successfully in T. reesei for the first time. Our light inducible transactivators can homodimerize and bind to the upstream region of artificial promoters to activate or repress genes transcription. Additionally, we upgraded the light-inducible system to on-off system that can simultaneously control the expression of multiple heterologous proteins in T. reesei. Moreover, a native cellulase-free background for the expression of heterologous proteins was achieved by knocking out the genes involved in transcriptional regulation and encoding of cellulases: xyr1, cbh1, and cbh2. Our light-switchable system showed a very little background protein expression and robust activation in the blue light with significantly improved heterologous protein expression. We demonstrate that our light-switchable system has a potential application as an on/off "switch" that can simultaneously regulate the expression of multiple genes in T. reesei under native cellulase-free background.
Light-mediated control of gene expression in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei.
We developed a light-mediated system based on synthetic light-switchable transactivators. The transactivators bind promoter upon blue-light exposure and rapidly initiate transcription of target transgenes in filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei. Light is inexpensive to apply, easily delivered, and instantly removed, and thus has significant advantages over chemical inducers.