Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 2 of 2 results

Steric interactions stabilize the signaling state of the LOV2 domain of phototropin 1.

blue LOV domains Background
Biochemistry, 21 Jul 2007 DOI: 10.1021/bi700852w Link to full text
Abstract: Phototropins (phot1 and phot2) are blue light receptor kinases that control a range of photoresponses that serve to optimize the photosynthetic efficiency of plants. Light sensing by the phototropins is mediated by a repeated motif at the N-terminal region of the protein known as the LOV domain. Bacterially expressed LOV domains bind flavin mononucleotide noncovalently and are photochemically active in solution. Irradiation of the LOV domain results in the formation of a flavin-cysteinyl adduct (LOV390) which thermally relaxes back to the ground state in the dark, effectively completing a photocycle that serves as a molecular switch to control receptor kinase activity. We have employed a random mutagenesis approach to identify further amino acid residues involved in LOV-domain photochemistry. Escherichia coli colonies expressing a mutagenized population of LOV2 derived from Avena sativa (oat) phot1 were screened for variants that showed altered photochemical reactivity in response to blue light excitation. One variant showed slower rates of LOV390 formation but exhibited adduct decay times 1 order of magnitude faster than wild type. A single Ile --> Val substitution was responsible for the effects observed, which removes a single methyl group found in van der Waals contact with the cysteine sulfur involved in adduct formation. A kinetic acceleration trend was observed for adduct decay by decreasing the size of the isoleucine side chain. Our findings therefore indicate that the steric nature of this amino acid side chain contributes to stabilization of the C-S cysteinyl adduct.

Phototropins: a new family of flavin-binding blue light receptors in plants.

blue LOV domains Review Background
Antioxid Redox Signal, 5 Nov 2001 DOI: 10.1089/15230860152664975 Link to full text
Abstract: Phototropin is the designation originally assigned to a recently characterized chromoprotein that serves as a photoreceptor for phototropism. Phototropin is a light-activated autophosphorylating serine/threonine kinase that binds two flavin mononucleotide (FMN) molecules that function as blue light-absorbing chromophores. Each FMN molecule is bound in a rigid binding pocket within specialized PAS (PER-ARNT-SIM superfamily) domains, known as LOV (light, oxygen, or voltage) domains. This article reviews the detailed photobiological and biochemical characterization of the light-activated phosphorylation reaction of phototropin and follows the sequence of events leading to the cloning, sequencing, and characterization of the gene and the subsequent biochemical characterization of its encoded protein. It then considers recent biochemical and photochemical evidence that light activation of phototropin involves the formation of a cysteinyl adduct at the C(4a) position of the FMN chromophores. Adduct formation causes a major conformational change in the chromophores and a possible conformational change in the protein moiety as well. The review concludes with a brief discussion of the evidence for a second phototropin-like protein in Arabidopsis and rice. Possible roles for this photoreceptor are discussed.
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