Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 10 of 10 results

Spatiotemporally confined red light-controlled gene delivery at single-cell resolution using adeno-associated viral vectors.

red PhyB/PIF6 A-431 A549 CHO-K1 HEK293T HeLa MDA-MB-231 MDA-MB-453 SK-OV-3 Extracellular optogenetics
Sci Adv, 16 Jun 2021 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.abf0797 Link to full text
Abstract: Methodologies for the controlled delivery of genetic information into target cells are of utmost importance for genetic engineering in both fundamental and applied research. However, available methods for efficient gene transfer into user-selected or even single cells suffer from low throughput, the need for complicated equipment, high invasiveness, or side effects by off-target viral uptake. Here, we engineer an adeno-associated viral (AAV) vector system that transfers genetic information into native target cells upon illumination with cell-compatible red light. This OptoAAV system allows adjustable and spatially resolved gene transfer down to single-cell resolution and is compatible with different cell lines and primary cells. Moreover, the sequential application of multiple OptoAAVs enables spatially resolved transduction with different transgenes. The approach presented is likely extendable to other classes of viral vectors and is expected to foster advances in basic and applied genetic research.

Cross-TCR Antagonism Revealed by Optogenetically Tuning the Half-Life of the TCR Ligand Binding.

red PhyB/PIF6 Jurkat Signaling cascade control
Int J Mol Sci, 6 May 2021 DOI: 10.3390/ijms22094920 Link to full text
Abstract: Activation of T cells by agonistic peptide-MHC can be inhibited by antagonistic ones. However, the exact mechanism remains elusive. We used Jurkat cells expressing two different TCRs and tested whether stimulation of the endogenous TCR by agonistic anti-Vβ8 antibodies can be modulated by ligand-binding to the second, optogenetic TCR. The latter TCR uses phytochrome B tetramers (PhyBt) as ligand, the binding half-life of which can be altered by light. We show that this half-life determined whether the PhyBt acted as a second agonist (long half-life), an antagonist (short half-life) or did not have any influence (very short half-life) on calcium influx. A mathematical model of this cross-antagonism shows that a mechanism based on an inhibitory signal generated by early recruitment of a phosphatase and an activating signal by later recruitment of a kinase explains the data.

Production, Purification and Characterization of Recombinant Biotinylated Phytochrome B for Extracellular Optogenetics.

red PhyB/PIF6 in vitro
Bio Protoc, 5 Mar 2020 DOI: 10.21769/bioprotoc.3541 Link to full text
Abstract: In the field of extracellular optogenetics, photoreceptors are applied outside of cells to obtain systems with a desired functionality. Among the diverse applied photoreceptors, phytochromes are the only ones that can be actively and reversibly switched between the active and inactive photostate by the illumination with cell-compatible red and far-red light. In this protocol, we describe the production of a biotinylated variant of the photosensory domain of A. thaliana phytochrome B (PhyB-AviTag) in E. coli with a single, optimized expression plasmid. We give detailed instructions for the purification of the protein by immobilized metal affinity chromatography and the characterization of the protein in terms of purity, biotinylation, spectral photoswitching and the light-dependent interaction with its interaction partner PIF6. In comparison to previous studies applying PhyB-AviTag, the optimized expression plasmid used in this protocol simplifies the production process and shows an increased yield and purity.

Optogenetic Tuning of Ligand Binding to The Human T cell Receptor Using The opto-ligand-TCR System.

red PhyB/PIF6 Jurkat
Bio Protoc, 5 Mar 2020 DOI: 10.21769/bioprotoc.3540 Link to full text
Abstract: T cells are one major cell type of the immune system that use their T cell antigen receptor (TCR) to bind and respond to foreign molecules derived from pathogens. The ligand-TCR interaction half-lives determine stimulation outcome. Until recently, scientists relied on mutating either the TCR or its ligands to investigate how varying TCR-ligand interaction durations impacted on T cell activation. Our newly created opto-ligand-TCR system allowed us to precisely and reversibly control ligand binding to the TCR by light illumination. This system uses phytochrome B (PhyB) tetramers as a light-regulated TCR ligand. PhyB can be photoconverted between a binding (ON) and non-binding (OFF) conformation by 660 nm and 740 nm light illumination, respectively. PhyB ON is able to bind to a synthetic TCR, generated by fusing the PhyB interacting factor (PIF) to the TCRβ chain. Switching PhyB to the OFF conformation disrupts this interaction. Sufficiently long binding of PhyB tetramers to the PIF-TCR led to T cell activation as measured by calcium influx. Here, we describe protocols for how to generate the tetrameric ligand for our opto-ligand-TCR system, how to measure ligand-TCR binding by flow cytometry and how to quantify T cell activation via calcium influx.

Optogenetic control shows that kinetic proofreading regulates the activity of the T cell receptor.

red PhyB/PIF6 Jurkat Signaling cascade control Immediate control of second messengers
Elife, 5 Apr 2019 DOI: 10.7554/elife.42475 Link to full text
Abstract: The immune system distinguishes between self and foreign antigens. The kinetic proofreading (KPR) model proposes that T cells discriminate self from foreign ligands by the different ligand binding half-lives to the T cell receptor (TCR). It is challenging to test KPR as the available experimental systems fall short of only altering the binding half-lives and keeping other parameters of the interaction unchanged. We engineered an optogenetic system using the plant photoreceptor phytochrome B (PhyB) as a ligand to selectively control the dynamics of ligand binding to the TCR by light. This opto-ligand-TCR system was combined with the unique property of PhyB to continuously cycle between the binding and non-binding states under red light, with the light intensity determining the cycling rate and thus the binding duration. Mathematical modeling of our experimental datasets showed that indeed the ligand-TCR interaction half-life is the decisive factor for activating downstream TCR signaling, substantiating KPR.

Light-Controlled Affinity Purification of Protein Complexes Exemplified by the Resting ZAP70 Interactome.

red PhyB/PIF6 in vitro Extracellular optogenetics
Front Immunol, 26 Feb 2019 DOI: 10.3389/fimmu.2019.00226 Link to full text
Abstract: Multiprotein complexes control the behavior of cells, such as of lymphocytes of the immune system. Methods to affinity purify protein complexes and to determine their interactome by mass spectrometry are thus widely used. One drawback of these methods is the presence of false positives. In fact, the elution of the protein of interest (POI) is achieved by changing the biochemical properties of the buffer, so that unspecifically bound proteins (the false positives) may also elute. Here, we developed an optogenetics-derived and light-controlled affinity purification method based on the light-regulated reversible protein interaction between phytochrome B (PhyB) and its phytochrome interacting factor 6 (PIF6). We engineered a truncated variant of PIF6 comprising only 22 amino acids that can be genetically fused to the POI as an affinity tag. Thereby the POI can be purified with PhyB-functionalized resin material using 660 nm light for binding and washing, and 740 nm light for elution. Far-red light-induced elution is effective but very mild as the same buffer is used for the wash and elution. As proof-of-concept, we expressed PIF-tagged variants of the tyrosine kinase ZAP70 in ZAP70-deficient Jurkat T cells, purified ZAP70 and associating proteins using our light-controlled system, and identified the interaction partners by quantitative mass spectrometry. Using unstimulated T cells, we were able to detect the know interaction partners, and could filter out all other proteins.

Phytochrome-Based Extracellular Matrix with Reversibly Tunable Mechanical Properties.

red Cph1 in vitro Signaling cascade control Control of cell-cell / cell-material interactions Extracellular optogenetics
Adv Mater Weinheim, 27 Jan 2019 DOI: 10.1002/adma.201806727 Link to full text
Abstract: Interrogation and control of cellular fate and function using optogenetics is providing revolutionary insights into biology. Optogenetic control of cells is achieved by coupling genetically encoded photoreceptors to cellular effectors and enables unprecedented spatiotemporal control of signaling processes. Here, a fast and reversibly switchable photoreceptor is used to tune the mechanical properties of polymer materials in a fully reversible, wavelength-specific, and dose- and space-controlled manner. By integrating engineered cyanobacterial phytochrome 1 into a poly(ethylene glycol) matrix, hydrogel materials responsive to light in the cell-compatible red/far-red spectrum are synthesized. These materials are applied to study in human mesenchymal stem cells how different mechanosignaling pathways respond to changing mechanical environments and to control the migration of primary immune cells in 3D. This optogenetics-inspired matrix allows fundamental questions of how cells react to dynamic mechanical environments to be addressed. Further, remote control of such matrices can create new opportunities for tissue engineering or provide a basis for optically stimulated drug depots.

Optogenetic control of integrin-matrix interaction.

red PhyB/PIF6 HEK293T HeLa MCF7 Signaling cascade control Control of cell-cell / cell-material interactions Extracellular optogenetics
Commun Biol, 8 Jan 2019 DOI: 10.1038/s42003-018-0264-7 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic approaches have gathered momentum in precisely modulating and interrogating cellular signalling and gene expression. The use of optogenetics on the outer cell surface to interrogate how cells receive stimuli from their environment, however, has so far not reached its full potential. Here we demonstrate the development of an optogenetically regulated membrane receptor-ligand pair exemplified by the optically responsive interaction of an integrin receptor with the extracellular matrix. The system is based on an integrin engineered with a phytochrome-interacting factor domain (OptoIntegrin) and a red light-switchable phytochrome B-functionalized matrix (OptoMatrix). This optogenetic receptor-ligand pair enables light-inducible and -reversible cell-matrix interaction, as well as the controlled activation of downstream mechanosensory signalling pathways. Pioneering the application of optogenetic switches in the extracellular environment of cells, this OptoMatrix–OptoIntegrin system may serve as a blueprint for rendering matrix–receptor interactions amendable to precise control with light.

Dual-controlled optogenetic system for the rapid down-regulation of protein levels in mammalian cells.

blue AsLOV2 EL222 CHO-K1 Cos-7 HEK293 HEK293T HeLa isolated MEFs NIH/3T3 Cell death
Sci Rep, 9 Oct 2018 DOI: 10.1038/s41598-018-32929-7 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic switches are emerging molecular tools for studying cellular processes as they offer higher spatiotemporal and quantitative precision than classical, chemical-based switches. Light-controllable gene expression systems designed to upregulate protein expression levels meanwhile show performances superior to their chemical-based counterparts. However, systems to reduce protein levels with similar efficiency are lagging behind. Here, we present a novel two-component, blue light-responsive optogenetic OFF switch (‘Blue-OFF’), which enables a rapid and quantitative down-regulation of a protein upon illumination. Blue-OFF combines the first light responsive repressor KRAB-EL222 with the protein degradation module B-LID (blue light-inducible degradation domain) to simultaneously control gene expression and protein stability with a single wavelength. Blue-OFF thus outperforms current optogenetic systems for controlling protein levels. The system is described by a mathematical model which aids in the choice of experimental conditions such as light intensity and illumination regime to obtain the desired outcome. This approach represents an advancement of dual-controlled optogenetic systems in which multiple photosensory modules operate synergistically. As exemplified here for the control of apoptosis in mammalian cell culture, the approach opens up novel perspectives in fundamental research and applications such as tissue engineering.

Red Light-Regulated Reversible Nuclear Localization of Proteins in Mammalian Cells and Zebrafish.

red PhyB/PIF3 CHO-K1 Cos-7 HEK293T HeLa NIH/3T3 zebrafish in vivo
ACS Synth Biol, 30 Mar 2015 DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.5b00004 Link to full text
Abstract: Protein trafficking in and out of the nucleus represents a key step in controlling cell fate and function. Here we report the development of a red light-inducible and far-red light-reversible synthetic system for controlling nuclear localization of proteins in mammalian cells and zebrafish. First, we synthetically reconstructed and validated the red light-dependent Arabidopsis phytochrome B nuclear import mediated by phytochrome-interacting factor 3 in a nonplant environment and support current hypotheses on the import mechanism in planta. On the basis of this principle we next regulated nuclear import and activity of target proteins by the spatiotemporal projection of light patterns. A synthetic transcription factor was translocated into the nucleus of mammalian cells and zebrafish to drive transgene expression. These data demonstrate the first in vivo application of a plant phytochrome-based optogenetic tool in vertebrates and expand the repertoire of available light-regulated molecular devices.
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