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Modulation of warm temperature-sensitive growth using a phytochrome B dark reversion variant, phyB[G515E], in Arabidopsis and rice.
Ambient temperature-induced hypocotyl elongation in Arabidopsis seedlings is sensed by the epidermis-localized phytochrome B (phyB) and transduced into auxin biosynthesis via a basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor, phytochrome-interacting factor 4 (PIF4). Once synthesized, auxin travels down from the cotyledons to the hypocotyl, triggering hypocotyl cell elongation. Thus, the phyB-PIF4 module involved in thermosensing and signal transduction is a potential genetic target for engineering warm temperature-insensitive plants.
Color Sensing and Signal Transmission Diversity of Cyanobacterial Phytochromes and Cyanobacteriochromes.
To perceive fluctuations in light quality, quantity, and timing, higher plants have evolved diverse photoreceptors including UVR8 (a UV-B photoreceptor), cryptochromes, phototropins, and phytochromes (Phys). In contrast to plants, prokaryotic oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms, cyanobacteria, rely mostly on bilin-based photoreceptors, namely, cyanobacterial phytochromes (Cphs) and cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs), which exhibit structural and functional differences compared with plant Phys. CBCRs comprise varying numbers of light sensing domains with diverse color-tuning mechanisms and signal transmission pathways, allowing cyanobacteria to respond to UV-A, visible, and far-red lights. Recent genomic surveys of filamentous cyanobacteria revealed novel CBCRs with broader chromophore-binding specificity and photocycle protochromicity. Furthermore, a novel Cph lineage has been identified that absorbs blue-violet/yellow-orange light. In this minireview, we briefly discuss the diversity in color sensing and signal transmission mechanisms of Cphs and CBCRs, along with their potential utility in the field of optogenetics.
Near-UV cyanobacteriochrome signaling system elicits negative phototaxis in the cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803.
Positive phototaxis systems have been well studied in bacteria; however, the photoreceptor(s) and their downstream signaling components that are responsible for negative phototaxis are poorly understood. Negative phototaxis sensory systems are important for cyanobacteria, oxygenic photosynthetic organisms that must contend with reactive oxygen species generated by an abundance of pigment photosensitizers. The unicellular cyanobacterium Synechocystis sp. PCC6803 exhibits type IV pilus-dependent negative phototaxis in response to unidirectional UV-A illumination. Using a reverse genetic approach, together with biochemical, molecular genetic, and RNA expression profiling analyses, we show that the cyanobacteriochrome locus (slr1212/uirS) of Synechocystis and two adjacent response regulator loci (slr1213/uirR and the PatA-type regulator slr1214/lsiR) encode a UV-A-activated signaling system that is required for negative phototaxis. We propose that UirS, which is membrane-associated via its ETR1 domain, functions as a UV-A photosensor directing expression of lsiR via release of bound UirR, which targets the lsiR promoter. Constitutive expression of LsiR induces negative phototaxis under conditions that normally promote positive phototaxis. Also induced by other stresses, LsiR thus integrates light inputs from multiple photosensors to determine the direction of movement.