Showing 1 - 9 of 9 results
Photoactivated Adenylyl Cyclases: Fundamental Properties and Applications.
Photoactivated adenylyl cyclase (PAC) was first discovered to be a sensor for photoavoidance in the flagellate Euglena gracilis. PAC is a flavoprotein that catalyzes the production of cAMP upon illumination with blue light, which enables us to optogenetically manipulate intracellular cAMP levels in various biological systems. Recent progress in genome sequencing has revealed several related proteins in bacteria and ameboflagellates. Among them, the PACs from sulfur bacterium Beggiatoa sp. and cyanobacterium Oscillatoria acuminata have been well characterized, including their crystalline structure. Although there have not been many reported optogenetic applications of PACs so far, they have the potential to be used in various fields within bioscience.
Genetically Encoded Photosensitizer for Destruction of Protein or Cell Function.
There are several paths when excited molecules return to the ground state. In the case of fluorescent molecules, the dominant path is fluorescence emission that is greatly contributing to bioimaging. Meanwhile, photosensitizers transfer electron or energy from chromophore to the surrounding molecules, including molecular oxygen. Generated reactive oxygen species has potency to attack other molecules by oxidation. In this chapter, we introduce the chromophore-assisted light inactivation (CALI) method using a photosensitizer to inactivate proteins in a spatiotemporal manner and development of CALI tools, which is useful for investigation of protein functions and dynamics, by inactivation of the target molecules. Moreover, photosensitizers with high efficiency make it possible optogenetic control of cell ablation in living organisms and photodynamic therapy. Further development of photosensitizers with different excitation wavelengths will contribute to the investigation of multiple proteins or cell functions through inactivation in the different positions and timings.
New Pioneers of Optogenetics in Neuroscience.
Optogenetics have recently increased in popularity as tools to study behavior in response to the brain and how these trends relate back to a neuronal circuit. Additionally, the high demand for human cerebral tissue in research has led to the generation of a new model to investigate human brain development and disease. Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (hPSCs) have been previously used to recapitulate the development of several tissues such as intestine, stomach and liver and to model disease in a human context, recently new improvements have been made in the field of hPSC-derived brain organoids to better understand overall brain development but more specifically, to mimic inter-neuronal communication. This review aims to highlight the recent advances in these two separate approaches of brain research and to emphasize the need for overlap. These two novel approaches would combine the study of behavior along with the specific circuits required to produce the signals causing such behavior. This review is focused on the current state of the field, as well as the development of novel optogenetic technologies and their potential for current scientific study and potential therapeutic use.
Phytochromes and Cyanobacteriochromes: Photoreceptor Molecules Incorporating a Linear Tetrapyrrole Chromophore.
In this chapter, we summarize the molecular mechanisms of the linear tetrapyrrole-binding photoreceptors, phytochromes, and cyanobacteriochromes. We especially focus on the color-tuning mechanisms and conformational changes during the photoconversion process. Furthermore, we introduce current status of development of the optogenetic tools based on these molecules. Huge repertoire of these photoreceptors with diverse spectral properties would contribute to development of multiplex optogenetic regulation. Among them, the photoreceptors incorporating the biliverdin IXα chromophore is advantageous for in vivo optogenetics because this is intrinsic in the mammalian cells, and absorbs far-red light penetrating into deep mammalian tissues.
Light Control of Gene Expression Dynamics.
The progress in live-cell imaging technologies has revealed diverse dynamic patterns of transcriptional activity in various contexts. The discovery raised a next question of whether the gene expression patterns play causative roles in triggering specific biological events or not. Here, we introduce optogenetic methods that realize optical control of gene expression dynamics in mammalian cells and would be utilized for answering the question, by referring the past, the present, and the future.
Visualization and Manipulation of Intracellular Signaling.
Cells respond to a wide range of extracellular stimuli, and process the input information through an intracellular signaling system comprised of biochemical and biophysical reactions, including enzymatic and protein-protein interactions. It is essential to understand the molecular mechanisms underlying intracellular signal transduction in order to clarify not only physiological cellular functions but also pathological processes such as tumorigenesis. Fluorescent proteins have revolutionized the field of life science, and brought the study of intracellular signaling to the single-cell and subcellular levels. Much effort has been devoted to developing genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors based on fluorescent proteins, which enable us to visualize the spatiotemporal dynamics of cell signaling. In addition, optogenetic techniques for controlling intracellular signal transduction systems have been developed and applied in recent years by regulating intracellular signaling in a light-dependent manner. Here, we outline the principles of biosensors for probing intracellular signaling and the optogenetic tools for manipulating them.
Photoreaction Mechanisms of Flavoprotein Photoreceptors and Their Applications.
Three classes of flavoprotein photoreceptors, cryptochromes (CRYs), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-domain proteins, and blue light using FAD (BLUF)-domain proteins, have been identified that control various physiological processes in multiple organisms. Accordingly, signaling activities of photoreceptors have been intensively studied and the related mechanisms have been exploited in numerous optogenetic tools. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of photoactivation mechanisms of the flavoprotein photoreceptors and review their applications.
Functional Modulation of Receptor Proteins on Cellular Interface with Optogenetic System.
In multicellular organisms, living cells cooperate with each other to exert coordinated complex functions by responding to extracellular chemical or physical stimuli via proteins on the plasma membrane. Conventionally, chemical signal transduction or mechano-transduction has been investigated by chemical, genetic, or physical perturbation; however, these methods cannot manipulate biomolecular reactions at high spatiotemporal resolution. In contrast, recent advances in optogenetic perturbation approaches have succeeded in controlling signal transduction with external light. The methods have enabled spatiotemporal perturbation of the signaling, providing functional roles of the specific proteins. In this chapter, we summarize recent advances in the optogenetic tools that modulate the function of a receptor protein. While most optogenetic systems have been devised for controlling ion channel conductivities, the present review focuses on the other membrane proteins involved in chemical transduction or mechano-transduction. We describe the properties of natural or artificial photoreceptor proteins used in optogenetic systems. Then, we discuss the strategies for controlling the receptor protein functions by external light. Future prospects of optogenetic tool development are discussed.
Oscillatory Control of Notch Signaling in Development.
The Notch effectors Hes1 and Hes7 and the Notch ligand Delta-like1 (Dll1) are expressed in an oscillatory manner during neurogenesis and somitogenesis. These two biological events exhibit different types of oscillations: anti-/out-of-phase oscillation in neural stem cells during neurogenesis and in-phase oscillation in presomitic mesoderm (PSM) cells during somitogenesis. Accelerated or delayed Dll1 expression by shortening or elongating the size of the Dll1 gene, respectively, dampens or quenches Dll1 oscillation at intermediate levels, a phenomenon known as "amplitude/oscillation death" of coupled oscillators. Under this condition, both Hes1 oscillation in neural stem cells and Hes7 oscillation in PSM cells are also dampened. As a result, maintenance of neural stem cells is impaired, leading to microcephaly, while somite segmentation is impaired, leading to severe fusion of somites and their derivatives, such as vertebrae and ribs. Thus, the appropriate timing of Dll1 expression is critical for the oscillatory expression in Notch signaling and normal processes of neurogenesis and somitogenesis. Optogenetic analysis indicated that Dll1 oscillations transfer the oscillatory information between neighboring cells, which may induce anti-/out-of-phase and in-phase oscillations depending on the delay in signaling transmission. These oscillatory dynamics can be described in a unified manner by mathematical modeling.