Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 14 of 14 results

Long-Range Optogenetic Control of Axon Guidance Overcomes Developmental Boundaries and Defects.

blue AsLOV2 zebrafish in vivo Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Dev Cell, 8 Jun 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.05.009 Link to full text
Abstract: Axons connect neurons together, establishing the wiring architecture of neuronal networks. Axonal connectivity is largely built during embryonic development through highly constrained processes of axon guidance, which have been extensively studied. However, the inability to control axon guidance, and thus neuronal network architecture, has limited investigation of how axonal connections influence subsequent development and function of neuronal networks. Here, we use zebrafish motor neurons expressing a photoactivatable Rac1 to co-opt endogenous growth cone guidance machinery to precisely and non-invasively direct axon growth using light. Axons can be guided over large distances, within complex environments of living organisms, overriding competing endogenous signals and redirecting axons across potent repulsive barriers to construct novel circuitry. Notably, genetic axon guidance defects can be rescued, restoring functional connectivity. These data demonstrate that intrinsic growth cone guidance machinery can be co-opted to non-invasively build new connectivity, allowing investigation of neural network dynamics in intact living organisms.

Tissue-Scale Mechanical Coupling Reduces Morphogenetic Noise to Ensure Precision during Epithelial Folding.

blue CRY2/CIB1 D. melanogaster in vivo Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Dev Cell, 3 Mar 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.02.012 Link to full text
Abstract: Morphological constancy is universal in developing systems. It is unclear whether precise morphogenesis stems from faithful mechanical interpretation of gene expression patterns. We investigate the formation of the cephalic furrow, an epithelial fold that is precisely positioned with a linear morphology. Fold initiation is specified by a precise genetic code with single-cell row resolution. This positional code activates and spatially confines lateral myosin contractility to induce folding. However, 20% of initiating cells are mis-specified because of fluctuating myosin intensities at the cellular level. Nevertheless, the furrow remains linearly aligned. We find that lateral myosin is planar polarized, integrating contractile membrane interfaces into supracellular "ribbons." Local reduction of mechanical coupling at the "ribbons" using optogenetics decreases furrow linearity. Furthermore, 3D vertex modeling indicates that polarized, interconnected contractility confers morphological robustness against noise. Thus, tissue-scale mechanical coupling functions as a denoising mechanism to ensure morphogenetic precision despite noisy decoding of positional information.

Rapid Dynamics of Signal-Dependent Transcriptional Repression by Capicua.

blue iLID D. melanogaster in vivo Endogenous gene expression Developmental processes
Dev Cell, 26 Feb 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.02.004 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic perturbations, live imaging, and time-resolved ChIP-seq assays in Drosophila embryos were used to dissect the ERK-dependent control of the HMG-box repressor Capicua (Cic), which plays critical roles in development and is deregulated in human spinocerebellar ataxia and cancers. We established that Cic target genes are activated before significant downregulation of nuclear localization of Cic and demonstrated that their activation is preceded by fast dissociation of Cic from the regulatory DNA. We discovered that both Cic-DNA binding and repression are rapidly reinstated in the absence of ERK activation, revealing that inductive signaling must be sufficiently sustained to ensure robust transcriptional response. Our work provides a quantitative framework for the mechanistic analysis of dynamics and control of transcriptional repression in development.

A Nudge or a Shove: Altering Actomyosin Pulse Profiles In Vivo.

blue LOV domains Review
Dev Cell, 27 Jan 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2020.01.001 Link to full text
Abstract: Pulsed actomyosin contractions drive morphogenetic processes, but how cyclic frequencies and amplitudes of contractions are tuned to achieve processive shrinking of cell surfaces remains unclear. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Cavanaugh et al. (2020) use optogenetics and biophysical modeling to demonstrate how cells respond to different oscillatory force profiles.

RhoA Mediates Epithelial Cell Shape Changes via Mechanosensitive Endocytosis.

blue TULIP Caco-2 Signaling cascade control Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Dev Cell, 26 Dec 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.12.002 Link to full text
Abstract: Epithelial remodeling involves ratcheting behavior whereby periodic contractility produces transient changes in cell-cell contact lengths, which stabilize to produce lasting morphogenetic changes. Pulsatile RhoA activity is thought to underlie morphogenetic ratchets, but how RhoA governs transient changes in junction length, and how these changes are rectified to produce irreversible deformation, remains poorly understood. Here, we use optogenetics to characterize responses to pulsatile RhoA in model epithelium. Short RhoA pulses drive reversible junction contractions, while longer pulses produce irreversible junction length changes that saturate with prolonged pulse durations. Using an enhanced vertex model, we show this is explained by two effects: thresholded tension remodeling and continuous strain relaxation. Our model predicts that structuring RhoA into multiple pulses overcomes the saturation of contractility and confirms this experimentally. Junction remodeling also requires formin-mediated E-cadherin clustering and dynamin-dependent endocytosis. Thus, irreversible junction deformations are regulated by RhoA-mediated contractility, membrane trafficking, and adhesion receptor remodeling.

Primary Cilia Signaling Promotes Axonal Tract Development and Is Disrupted in Joubert Syndrome-Related Disorders Models.

blue bPAC (BlaC) CRY2/CIB1 primary mouse deep cerebellar nuclei neurons Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape Immediate control of second messengers
Dev Cell, 16 Dec 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.11.005 Link to full text
Abstract: Appropriate axonal growth and connectivity are essential for functional wiring of the brain. Joubert syndrome-related disorders (JSRD), a group of ciliopathies in which mutations disrupt primary cilia function, are characterized by axonal tract malformations. However, little is known about how cilia-driven signaling regulates axonal growth and connectivity. We demonstrate that the deletion of related JSRD genes, Arl13b and Inpp5e, in projection neurons leads to de-fasciculated and misoriented axonal tracts. Arl13b deletion disrupts the function of its downstream effector, Inpp5e, and deregulates ciliary-PI3K/AKT signaling. Chemogenetic activation of ciliary GPCR signaling and cilia-specific optogenetic modulation of downstream second messenger cascades (PI3K, AKT, and AC3) commonly regulated by ciliary signaling receptors induce rapid changes in axonal dynamics. Further, Arl13b deletion leads to changes in transcriptional landscape associated with dysregulated PI3K/AKT signaling. These data suggest that ciliary signaling acts to modulate axonal connectivity and that impaired primary cilia signaling underlies axonal tract defects in JSRD.

Signaling Dynamics Control Cell Fate in the Early Drosophila Embryo.

blue iLID D. melanogaster in vivo Signaling cascade control Developmental processes
Dev Cell, 11 Feb 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.01.009 Link to full text
Abstract: The Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase plays diverse roles in animal development. Its widespread reuse raises a conundrum: when a single kinase like Erk is activated, how does a developing cell know which fate to adopt? We combine optogenetic control with genetic perturbations to dissect Erk-dependent fates in the early Drosophila embryo. We find that Erk activity is sufficient to "posteriorize" 88% of the embryo, inducing gut endoderm-like gene expression and morphogenetic movements in all cells within this region. Gut endoderm fate adoption requires at least 1 h of signaling, whereas a 30-min Erk pulse specifies a distinct ectodermal cell type, intermediate neuroblasts. We find that the endoderm-ectoderm cell fate switch is controlled by the cumulative load of Erk activity, not the duration of a single pulse. The fly embryo thus harbors a classic example of dynamic control, where the temporal profile of Erk signaling selects between distinct physiological outcomes.

Developmental Erk Signaling Illuminated.

blue LOV domains Review
Dev Cell, 11 Feb 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2019.01.022 Link to full text
Abstract: How a small number of signaling pathways can be re-used in distinct embryonic contexts to control different fates remains unclear. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Johnson and Toettcher (2019) use optogenetic approaches to explore how different dynamic ERK signaling states control specific developmental fates in the Drosophila embryo.

"Rho"ing a Cellular Boat with Rearward Membrane Flow.

blue LOV domains Review
Dev Cell, 2 Jul 2018 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2018.06.008 Link to full text
Abstract: The physicist Edward Purcell wrote in 1977 about mechanisms that cells could use to propel themselves in a low Reynolds number environment. Reporting in Developmental Cell, O'Neill et al. (2018) provide direct evidence for one of these mechanisms by optogenetically driving the migration of cells suspended in liquid through RhoA activation.

Membrane Flow Drives an Adhesion-Independent Amoeboid Cell Migration Mode.

blue iLID RAW264.7 Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Dev Cell, 21 Jun 2018 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2018.05.029 Link to full text
Abstract: Cells migrate by applying rearward forces against extracellular media. It is unclear how this is achieved in amoeboid migration, which lacks adhesions typical of lamellipodia-driven mesenchymal migration. To address this question, we developed optogenetically controlled models of lamellipodia-driven and amoeboid migration. On a two-dimensional surface, migration speeds in both modes were similar. However, when suspended in liquid, only amoeboid cells exhibited rapid migration accompanied by rearward membrane flow. These cells exhibited increased endocytosis at the back and membrane trafficking from back to front. Genetic or pharmacological perturbation of this polarized trafficking inhibited migration. The ratio of cell migration and membrane flow speeds matched the predicted value from a model where viscous forces tangential to the cell-liquid interface propel the cell forward. Since this mechanism does not require specific molecular interactions with the surrounding medium, it can facilitate amoeboid migration observed in diverse microenvironments during immune function and cancer metastasis.

Propagating Wave of ERK Activation Orients Collective Cell Migration.

blue CRY2/CIB1 MDCK Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape
Dev Cell, 6 Nov 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2017.10.016 Link to full text
Abstract: The biophysical framework of collective cell migration has been extensively investigated in recent years; however, it remains elusive how chemical inputs from neighboring cells are integrated to coordinate the collective movement. Here, we provide evidence that propagation waves of extracellular signal-related kinase (ERK) mitogen-activated protein kinase activation determine the direction of the collective cell migration. A wound-healing assay of Mardin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells revealed two distinct types of ERK activation wave, a "tidal wave" from the wound, and a self-organized "spontaneous wave" in regions distant from the wound. In both cases, MDCK cells collectively migrated against the direction of the ERK activation wave. The inhibition of ERK activation propagation suppressed collective cell migration. An ERK activation wave spatiotemporally controlled actomyosin contraction and cell density. Furthermore, an optogenetic ERK activation wave reproduced the collective cell migration. These data provide new mechanistic insight into how cells sense the direction of collective cell migration.

The Spatiotemporal Limits of Developmental Erk Signaling.

blue red iLID PhyB/PIF6 D. melanogaster in vivo Schneider 2 Signaling cascade control Developmental processes
Dev Cell, 23 Jan 2017 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2016.12.002 Link to full text
Abstract: Animal development is characterized by signaling events that occur at precise locations and times within the embryo, but determining when and where such precision is needed for proper embryogenesis has been a long-standing challenge. Here we address this question for extracellular signal regulated kinase (Erk) signaling, a key developmental patterning cue. We describe an optogenetic system for activating Erk with high spatiotemporal precision in vivo. Implementing this system in Drosophila, we find that embryogenesis is remarkably robust to ectopic Erk signaling, except from 1 to 4 hr post-fertilization, when perturbing the spatial extent of Erk pathway activation leads to dramatic disruptions of patterning and morphogenesis. Later in development, the effects of ectopic signaling are buffered, at least in part, by combinatorial mechanisms. Our approach can be used to systematically probe the differential contributions of the Ras/Erk pathway and concurrent signals, leading to a more quantitative understanding of developmental signaling.

Reversible Optogenetic Control of Subcellular Protein Localization in a Live Vertebrate Embryo.

red PhyB/PIF6 zebrafish in vivo
Dev Cell, 11 Jan 2016 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2015.12.011 Link to full text
Abstract: We demonstrate the utility of the phytochrome system to rapidly and reversibly recruit proteins to specific subcellular regions within specific cells in a living vertebrate embryo. Light-induced heterodimerization using the phytochrome system has previously been used as a powerful tool to dissect signaling pathways for single cells in culture but has not previously been used to reversibly manipulate the precise subcellular location of proteins in multicellular organisms. Here we report the experimental conditions necessary to use this system to manipulate proteins in vivo. As proof of principle, we demonstrate that we can manipulate the localization of the apical polarity protein Pard3 with high temporal and spatial precision in both the neural tube and the embryo's enveloping layer epithelium. Our optimizations of optogenetic component expression and chromophore purification and delivery should significantly lower the barrier for establishing this powerful optogenetic system in other multicellular organisms.

An Optogenetic Method to Modulate Cell Contractility during Tissue Morphogenesis.

blue CRY2/CIB1 D. melanogaster in vivo Control of cytoskeleton / cell motility / cell shape Developmental processes
Dev Cell, 7 Dec 2015 DOI: 10.1016/j.devcel.2015.10.020 Link to full text
Abstract: Morphogenesis of multicellular organisms is driven by localized cell shape changes. How, and to what extent, changes in behavior in single cells or groups of cells influence neighboring cells and large-scale tissue remodeling remains an open question. Indeed, our understanding of multicellular dynamics is limited by the lack of methods allowing the modulation of cell behavior with high spatiotemporal precision. Here, we developed an optogenetic approach to achieve local modulation of cell contractility and used it to control morphogenetic movements during Drosophila embryogenesis. We show that local inhibition of apical constriction is sufficient to cause a global arrest of mesoderm invagination. By varying the spatial pattern of inhibition during invagination, we further demonstrate that coordinated contractile behavior responds to local tissue geometrical constraints. Together, these results show the efficacy of this optogenetic approach to dissect the interplay between cell-cell interaction, force transmission, and tissue geometry during complex morphogenetic processes.
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