Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 3 of 3 results

A novel SATB1 protein isoform with different biophysical properties.

blue CRY2/CRY2 mouse T cells NIH/3T3 Organelle manipulation
Front Cell Dev Biol, 11 Aug 2023 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2023.1242481 Link to full text
Abstract: Intra-thymic T cell development is coordinated by the regulatory actions of SATB1 genome organizer. In this report, we show that SATB1 is involved in the regulation of transcription and splicing, both of which displayed deregulation in Satb1 knockout murine thymocytes. More importantly, we characterized a novel SATB1 protein isoform and described its distinct biophysical behavior, implicating potential functional differences compared to the commonly studied isoform. SATB1 utilized its prion-like domains to transition through liquid-like states to aggregated structures. This behavior was dependent on protein concentration as well as phosphorylation and interaction with nuclear RNA. Notably, the long SATB1 isoform was more prone to aggregate following phase separation. Thus, the tight regulation of SATB1 isoforms expression levels alongside with protein post-translational modifications, are imperative for SATB1's mode of action in T cell development. Our data indicate that deregulation of these processes may also be linked to disorders such as cancer.

Aberrant Phase Separation of FUS Leads to Lysosome Sequestering and Acidification.

blue CRY2/CRY2 HEK293 Organelle manipulation
Front Cell Dev Biol, 22 Oct 2021 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.716919 Link to full text
Abstract: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that leads to the death of upper and lower motor neurons. While most cases of ALS are sporadic, some of the familial forms of the disease are caused by mutations in the gene encoding for the RNA-binding protein FUS. Under physiological conditions, FUS readily phase separates into liquid-like droplets in vivo and in vitro. ALS-associated mutations interfere with this process and often result in solid-like aggregates rather than fluid condensates. Yet, whether cells recognize and triage aberrant condensates remains poorly understood, posing a major barrier to the development of novel ALS treatments. Using a combination of ALS-associated FUS mutations, optogenetic manipulation of FUS condensation, chemically induced stress, and pH-sensitive reporters of organelle acidity, we systematically characterized the cause-effect relationship between the material state of FUS condensates and the sequestering of lysosomes. From our data, we can derive three conclusions. First, regardless of whether we use wild-type or mutant FUS, expression levels (i.e., high concentrations) play a dominant role in determining the fraction of cells having soluble or aggregated FUS. Second, chemically induced FUS aggregates recruit LAMP1-positive structures. Third, mature, acidic lysosomes accumulate only at FUS aggregates but not at liquid-condensates. Together, our data suggest that lysosome-degradation machinery actively distinguishes between fluid and solid condensates. Unraveling these aberrant interactions and testing strategies to manipulate the autophagosome-lysosome axis provides valuable clues for disease intervention.

Non-neuromodulatory Optogenetic Tools in Zebrafish.

blue cyan green red BLUF domains Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Front Cell Dev Biol, 3 Jun 2020 DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2020.00418 Link to full text
Abstract: The zebrafish (Danio rerio) is a popular vertebrate model organism to investigate molecular mechanisms driving development and disease. Due to its transparency at embryonic and larval stages, investigations in the living organism are possible with subcellular resolution using intravital microscopy. The beneficial optical characteristics of zebrafish not only allow for passive observation, but also active manipulation of proteins and cells by light using optogenetic tools. Initially, photosensitive ion channels have been applied for neurobiological studies in zebrafish to dissect complex behaviors on a cellular level. More recently, exciting non-neural optogenetic tools have been established to control gene expression or protein localization and activity, allowing for unprecedented non-invasive and precise manipulation of various aspects of cellular physiology. Zebrafish will likely be a vertebrate model organism at the forefront of in vivo application of non-neural optogenetic tools and pioneering work has already been performed. In this review, we provide an overview of non-neuromodulatory optogenetic tools successfully applied in zebrafish to control gene expression, protein localization, cell signaling, migration and cell ablation.
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