Showing 1 - 5 of 5 results
Recent Synthetic Biology Approaches for Temperature- and Light-Controlled Gene Expression in Bacterial Hosts.
The expression of genes of interest (GOI) can be initiated by providing external stimuli such as temperature shifts and light irradiation. The application of thermal or light stimuli triggers structural changes in stimuli-sensitive biomolecules within the cell, thereby inducing or repressing gene expression. Over the past two decades, several groups have reported genetic circuits that use natural or engineered stimuli-sensitive modules to manipulate gene expression. Here, we summarize versatile strategies of thermosensors and light-driven systems for the conditional expression of GOI in bacterial hosts.
Development of Optogenetic Dual-Switch System for Rewiring Metabolic Flux for Polyhydroxybutyrate Production.
Several strategies, including inducer addition and biosensor use, have been developed for dynamical regulation. However, the toxicity, cost, and inflexibility of existing strategies have created a demand for superior technology. In this study, we designed an optogenetic dual-switch system and applied it to increase polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) production. First, an optimized chromatic acclimation sensor/regulator (RBS10-CcaS#10-CcaR) system (comprising an optimized ribosomal binding site (RBS), light sensory protein CcaS, and response regulator CcaR) was selected for a wide sensing range of approximately 10-fold between green-light activation and red-light repression. The RBS10-CcaS#10-CcaR system was combined with a blue light-activated YF1-FixJ-PhlF system (containing histidine kinase YF1, response regulator FixJ, and repressor PhlF) engineered with reduced crosstalk. Finally, the optogenetic dual-switch system was used to rewire the metabolic flux for PHB production by regulating the sequences and intervals of the citrate synthase gene (gltA) and PHB synthesis gene (phbCAB) expression. Consequently, the strain RBS34, which has high gltA expression and a time lag of 3 h, achieved the highest PHB content of 16.6 wt%, which was approximately 3-fold that of F34 (expressed at 0 h). The results indicate that the optogenetic dual-switch system was verified as a practical and convenient tool for increasing PHB production.
Color Sensing and Signal Transmission Diversity of Cyanobacterial Phytochromes and Cyanobacteriochromes.
To perceive fluctuations in light quality, quantity, and timing, higher plants have evolved diverse photoreceptors including UVR8 (a UV-B photoreceptor), cryptochromes, phototropins, and phytochromes (Phys). In contrast to plants, prokaryotic oxygen-evolving photosynthetic organisms, cyanobacteria, rely mostly on bilin-based photoreceptors, namely, cyanobacterial phytochromes (Cphs) and cyanobacteriochromes (CBCRs), which exhibit structural and functional differences compared with plant Phys. CBCRs comprise varying numbers of light sensing domains with diverse color-tuning mechanisms and signal transmission pathways, allowing cyanobacteria to respond to UV-A, visible, and far-red lights. Recent genomic surveys of filamentous cyanobacteria revealed novel CBCRs with broader chromophore-binding specificity and photocycle protochromicity. Furthermore, a novel Cph lineage has been identified that absorbs blue-violet/yellow-orange light. In this minireview, we briefly discuss the diversity in color sensing and signal transmission mechanisms of Cphs and CBCRs, along with their potential utility in the field of optogenetics.
Synergistic Ensemble of Optogenetic Actuators and Dynamic Indicators in Cell Biology.
Discovery of the naturally evolved fluorescent proteins and their genetically engineered biosensors have enormously contributed to current bio-imaging techniques. These reporters to trace dynamic changes of intracellular protein activities have continuously transformed according to the various demands in biological studies. Along with that, light-inducible optogenetic technologies have offered scientists to perturb, control and analyze the function of intracellular machineries in spatiotemporal manner. In this review, we present an overview of the molecular strategies that have been exploited for producing genetically encoded protein reporters and various optogenetic modules. Finally, in particular, we discuss the current efforts for combined use of these reporters and optogenetic modules as a powerful tactic for the control and imaging of signaling events in cells and tissues.
Phytochrome-interacting factors have both shared and distinct biological roles.
Phytochromes are plant photoreceptors that perceive red and far-red light. Upon the perception of light in Arabidopsis, light-activated phytochromes enter the nucleus and act on a set of interacting proteins, modulating their activities and thereby altering the expression levels of ∼10% of the organism's entire gene complement. Phytochromeinteracting factors (PIFs) belonging to Arabidopsis basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) subgroup 15 are key interacting proteins that play negative roles in light responses. Their activities are post-translationally countered by light-activated phytochromes, which promote the degradation of PIFs and directly or indirectly inhibit their binding to DNA. The PIFs share a high degree of similarity, but examinations of pif single and multiple mutants have indicated that they have shared and distinct functions in various developmental and physiological processes. These are believed to stem from differences in both intrinsic protein properties and their gene expression patterns. In an effort to clarify the basis of these shared and distinct functions, we compared recently published genome-wide ChIP data, developmental gene expression maps, and responses to various stimuli for the various PIFs. Based on our observations, we propose that the biological roles of PIFs stem from their shared and distinct DNA binding targets and specific gene expression patterns.