Curated Optogenetic Publication Database

Search precisely and efficiently by using the advantage of the hand-assigned publication tags that allow you to search for papers involving a specific trait, e.g. a particular optogenetic switch or a host organism.

Showing 1 - 25 of 83 results
1.

Emerging optogenetics technologies in biomedical applications.

blue green near-infrared red UV violet Cryptochromes Cyanobacteriochromes LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Smart Med, 1 Nov 2023 DOI: 10.1002/smmd.20230026 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetics is a cutting-edge technology that merges light control and genetics to achieve targeted control of tissue cells. Compared to traditional methods, optogenetics offers several advantages in terms of time and space precision, accuracy, and reduced damage to the research object. Currently, optogenetics is primarily used in pathway research, drug screening, gene expression regulation, and the stimulation of molecule release to treat various diseases. The selection of light-sensitive proteins is the most crucial aspect of optogenetic technology; structural changes occur or downstream channels are activated to achieve signal transmission or factor release, allowing efficient and controllable disease treatment. In this review, we examine the extensive research conducted in the field of biomedicine concerning optogenetics, including the selection of light-sensitive proteins, the study of carriers and delivery devices, and the application of disease treatment. Additionally, we offer critical insights and future implications of optogenetics in the realm of clinical medicine.
2.

Selective induction of programmed cell death using synthetic biology tools.

blue green near-infrared red UV violet BLUF domains Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Cyanobacteriochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Semin Cell Dev Biol, 17 Aug 2023 DOI: 10.1016/j.semcdb.2023.07.012 Link to full text
Abstract: Regulated cell death (RCD) controls the removal of dispensable, infected or malignant cells, and is thus essential for development, homeostasis and immunity of multicellular organisms. Over the last years different forms of RCD have been described (among them apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis and ferroptosis), and the cellular signaling pathways that control their induction and execution have been characterized at the molecular level. It has also become apparent that different forms of RCD differ in their capacity to elicit inflammation or an immune response, and that RCD pathways show a remarkable plasticity. Biochemical and genetic studies revealed that inhibition of a given pathway often results in the activation of back-up cell death mechanisms, highlighting close interconnectivity based on shared signaling components and the assembly of multivalent signaling platforms that can initiate different forms of RCD. Due to this interconnectivity and the pleiotropic effects of 'classical' cell death inducers, it is challenging to study RCD pathways in isolation. This has led to the development of tools based on synthetic biology that allow the targeted induction of RCD using chemogenetic or optogenetic methods. Here we discuss recent advances in the development of such toolset, highlighting their advantages and limitations, and their application for the study of RCD in cells and animals.
3.

Genetically encoded imaging tools for investigating cell dynamics at a glance.

blue red UV Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
J Cell Sci, 11 Apr 2023 DOI: 10.1242/jcs.260783 Link to full text
Abstract: The biology of a cell is the sum of many highly dynamic processes, each orchestrated by a plethora of proteins and other molecules. Microscopy is an invaluable approach to spatially and temporally dissect the molecular details of these processes. Hundreds of genetically encoded imaging tools have been developed that allow cell scientists to determine the function of a protein of interest in the context of these dynamic processes. Broadly, these tools fall into three strategies: observation, inhibition and activation. Using examples for each strategy, in this Cell Science at a Glance and the accompanying poster, we provide a guide to using these tools to dissect protein function in a given cellular process. Our focus here is on tools that allow rapid modification of proteins of interest and how observing the resulting changes in cell states is key to unlocking dynamic cell processes. The aim is to inspire the reader's next set of imaging experiments.
4.

Precise modulation of embryonic development through optogenetics.

blue cyan violet BLUF domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Review
Genesis, 7 Dec 2022 DOI: 10.1002/dvg.23505 Link to full text
Abstract: The past decade has witnessed enormous progress in optogenetics, which uses photo-sensitive proteins to control signal transduction in live cells and animals. The ever-increasing amount of optogenetic tools, however, could overwhelm the selection of appropriate optogenetic strategies. In this work, we summarize recent progress in this emerging field and highlight the application of opsin-free optogenetics in studying embryonic development, focusing on new insights gained into optical induction of morphogenesis, cell polarity, cell fate determination, tissue differentiation, neuronal regeneration, synaptic plasticity, and removal of cells during development.
5.

Optogenetics for light control of biological systems

blue red BLUF domains Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Nat Rev Methods Primers, 21 Jul 2022 DOI: 10.1038/s43586-022-00149-z Link to full text
Abstract: The H2 + H2 system has long been considered a benchmark system for ro-vibrational energy transfer in bimolecular collisions. However, most studies thus far have focused on collisions involving H2 molecules in the ground vibrational level or in the first excited vibrational state. While H2 + H2/HD collisions have received wide attention due to the important role they play in astrophysics, D2 + D2 collisions have received much less attention. Recently, Zhou et al. [ Nat. Chem. 2022, 14, 658-663, DOI: 10.1038/s41557-022-00926-z] examined stereodynamic aspects of rotational energy transfer in collisions of two aligned D2 molecules prepared in the v = 2 vibrational level and j = 2 rotational level. Here, we report quantum calculations of rotational and vibrational energy transfer in collisions of two D2 molecules prepared in vibrational levels up to v = 2 and identify key resonance features that contribute to the angular distribution in the experimental results of Zhou et al. The quantum scattering calculations were performed in full dimensionality and using the rigid-rotor approximation using a recently developed highly accurate six-dimensional potential energy surface for the H4 system that allows descriptions of collisions involving highly vibrationally excited H2 and its isotopologues.
6.

Engineering of optogenetic devices for biomedical applications in mammalian synthetic biology.

blue near-infrared red UV violet BLUF domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Eng Biol, 7 Jul 2022 DOI: 10.1049/enb2.12022 Link to full text
Abstract: Gene- and cell-based therapies are the next frontiers in the field of medicine. Both are transformative and innovative therapies; however, a lack of safety data limits the translation of such promising technologies to the clinic. Improving the safety and promoting the clinical translation of these therapies can be achieved by tightly regulating the release and delivery of therapeutic outputs. In recent years, the rapid development of optogenetic technology has provided opportunities to develop precision-controlled gene- and cell-based therapies, in which light is introduced to precisely and spatiotemporally manipulate the behaviour of genes and cells. This review focuses on the development of optogenetic tools and their applications in biomedicine, including photoactivated genome engineering and phototherapy for diabetes and tumours. The prospects and challenges of optogenetic tools for future clinical applications are also discussed.
7.

Optophysiology: Illuminating cell physiology with optogenetics.

blue cyan green near-infrared red UV violet BLUF domains Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Cyanobacteriochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Physiol Rev, 24 Jan 2022 DOI: 10.1152/physrev.00021.2021 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetics combines light and genetics to enable precise control of living cells, tissues, and organisms with tailored functions. Optogenetics has the advantages of noninvasiveness, rapid responsiveness, tunable reversibility, and superior spatiotemporal resolution. Following the initial discovery of microbial opsins as light-actuated ion channels, a plethora of naturally occurring or engineered photoreceptors or photosensitive domains that respond to light at varying wavelengths has ushered in the next chapter of optogenetics. Through protein engineering and synthetic biology approaches, genetically encoded photoswitches can be modularly engineered into protein scaffolds or host cells to control a myriad of biological processes, as well as to enable behavioral control and disease intervention in vivo. Here, we summarize these optogenetic tools on the basis of their fundamental photochemical properties to better inform the chemical basis and design principles. We also highlight exemplary applications of opsin-free optogenetics in dissecting cellular physiology (designated "optophysiology") and describe the current progress, as well as future trends, in wireless optogenetics, which enables remote interrogation of physiological processes with minimal invasiveness. This review is anticipated to spark novel thoughts on engineering next-generation optogenetic tools and devices that promise to accelerate both basic and translational studies.
8.

Directed evolution approaches for optogenetic tool development.

blue green near-infrared red Cryptochromes Cyanobacteriochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Biochem Soc Trans, 17 Dec 2021 DOI: 10.1042/bst20210700 Link to full text
Abstract: Photoswitchable proteins enable specific molecular events occurring in complex biological settings to be probed in a rapid and reversible fashion. Recent progress in the development of photoswitchable proteins as components of optogenetic tools has been greatly facilitated by directed evolution approaches in vitro, in bacteria, or in yeast. We review these developments and suggest future directions for this rapidly advancing field.
9.

A guide to the optogenetic regulation of endogenous molecules.

blue cyan near-infrared Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Nat Methods, 26 Aug 2021 DOI: 10.1038/s41592-021-01240-1 Link to full text
Abstract: Genetically encoded tools for the regulation of endogenous molecules (RNA, DNA elements and protein) are needed to study and control biological processes with minimal interference caused by protein overexpression and overactivation of signaling pathways. Here we focus on light-controlled optogenetic tools (OTs) that allow spatiotemporally precise regulation of gene expression and protein function. To control endogenous molecules, OTs combine light-sensing modules from natural photoreceptors with specific protein or nucleic acid binders. We discuss OT designs and group OTs according to the principles of their regulation. We outline characteristics of OT performance, discuss considerations for their use in vivo and review available OTs and their applications in cells and in vivo. Finally, we provide a brief outlook on the development of OTs.
10.

Clinical applicability of optogenetic gene regulation.

blue green near-infrared red UV Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Biotechnol Bioeng, 20 Jul 2021 DOI: 10.1002/bit.27895 Link to full text
Abstract: The field of optogenetics is rapidly growing in relevance and number of developed tools. Amongst other things, the optogenetic repertoire includes light-responsive ion channels and methods for gene regulation. This review will be confined to the optogenetic control of gene expression in mammalian cells as suitable models for clinical applications. Here optogenetic gene regulation might offer an excellent method for spatially and timely regulated gene and protein expression in cell therapeutic approaches. Well-known systems for gene regulation, such as the LOV-, CRY2/CIB-, PhyB/PIF-systems, as well as other, in mammalian cells not yet fully established systems will be described. Advantages and disadvantages with regard to clinical applications are outlined in detail. Among the many unanswered questions concerning the application of optogenetics, we discuss items such as the use of exogenous chromophores and their effects on the biology of the cells and methods for a gentle, but effective gene transfection method for optogenetic tools for in vivo applications. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
11.

Temporal induction of Lhx8 by optogenetic control system for efficient bone regeneration.

blue FKF1/GI HeLa mouse in vivo primary rat BMSCs Cell differentiation
Stem Cell Res Ther, 10 Jun 2021 DOI: 10.1186/s13287-021-02412-8 Link to full text
Abstract: The spatiotemporal regulation of essential genes is crucial for controlling the growth and differentiation of cells in a precise manner during regeneration. Recently, optogenetics was considered as a potent technology for sophisticated regulation of target genes, which might be a promising tool for regenerative medicine. In this study, we used an optogenetic control system to precisely regulate the expression of Lhx8 to promote efficient bone regeneration.
12.

Signaling, Deconstructed: Using Optogenetics to Dissect and Direct Information Flow in Biological Systems.

blue cyan green near-infrared red UV violet BLUF domains Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Annu Rev Biomed Eng, 15 Mar 2021 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-bioeng-083120-111648 Link to full text
Abstract: Cells receive enormous amounts of information from their environment. How they act on this information-by migrating, expressing genes, or relaying signals to other cells-comprises much of the regulatory and self-organizational complexity found across biology. The "parts list" involved in cell signaling is generally well established, but how do these parts work together to decode signals and produce appropriate responses? This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetic tools: light-sensitive proteins that enable biologists to manipulate the interaction, localization, and activity state of proteins with high spatial and temporal precision. In this review, we summarize how optogenetics is being used in the pursuit of an answer to this question, outlining the current suite of optogenetic tools available to the researcher and calling attention to studies that increase our understanding of and improve our ability to engineer biology. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering, Volume 23 is June 2021. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
13.

A light way for nuclear cell biologists.

blue near-infrared red violet Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
J Biochem, 27 Nov 2020 DOI: 10.1093/jb/mvaa139 Link to full text
Abstract: The nucleus is a very complex organelle present in eukaryotic cells. Having the crucial task to safeguard, organize and manage the genetic information, it must tightly control its molecular constituents, its shape and its internal architecture at any given time. Despite our vast knowledge of nuclear cell biology, much is yet to be unraveled. For instance, only recently we came to appreciate the existence of a dynamic nuclear cytoskeleton made of actin filaments that regulates processes such as gene expression, DNA repair and nuclear expansion. This suggests further exciting discoveries ahead of us. Modern cell biologists embrace a new methodology relying on precise perturbations of cellular processes that require a reversible, highly spatially-confinable, rapid, inexpensive and tunable external stimulus: light. In this review, we discuss how optogenetics, the state-of-the-art technology that uses genetically-encoded light-sensitive proteins to steer biological processes, can be adopted to specifically investigate nuclear cell biology.
14.

Controlling gene expression with light: a multidisciplinary endeavour.

blue green near-infrared red Cryptochromes Cyanobacteriochromes LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Biochem Soc Trans, 28 Aug 2020 DOI: 10.1042/bst20200014 Link to full text
Abstract: The expression of a gene to a protein is one of the most vital biological processes. The use of light to control biology offers unparalleled spatiotemporal resolution from an external, orthogonal signal. A variety of methods have been developed that use light to control the steps of transcription and translation of specific genes into proteins, for cell-free to in vivo biotechnology applications. These methods employ techniques ranging from the modification of small molecules, nucleic acids and proteins with photocages, to the engineering of proteins involved in gene expression using naturally light-sensitive proteins. Although the majority of currently available technologies employ ultraviolet light, there has been a recent increase in the use of functionalities that work at longer wavelengths of light, to minimise cellular damage and increase tissue penetration. Here, we discuss the different chemical and biological methods employed to control gene expression, while also highlighting the central themes and the most exciting applications within this diverse field.
15.

Photoactivatable Cre recombinase 3.0 for in vivo mouse applications.

blue CRY2/CIB1 FKF1/GI iLID Magnets HEK293T isolated MEFs mouse in vivo mouse neural progenitor cells
Nat Commun, 1 May 2020 DOI: 10.1038/s41467-020-16030-0 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetic genome engineering tools enable spatiotemporal control of gene expression and provide new insight into biological function. Here, we report the new version of genetically encoded photoactivatable (PA) Cre recombinase, PA-Cre 3.0. To improve PA-Cre technology, we compare light-dimerization tools and optimize for mammalian expression using a CAG promoter, Magnets, and 2A self-cleaving peptide. To prevent background recombination caused by the high sequence similarity in the dimerization domains, we modify the codons for mouse gene targeting and viral production. Overall, these modifications significantly reduce dark leak activity and improve blue-light induction developing our new version, PA-Cre 3.0. As a resource, we have generated and validated AAV-PA-Cre 3.0 as well as two mouse lines that can conditionally express PA-Cre 3.0. Together these new tools will facilitate further biological and biomedical research.
16.

Light-mediated control of Gene expression in mammalian cells.

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Neurosci Res, 7 Jan 2020 DOI: 10.1016/j.neures.2019.12.018 Link to full text
Abstract: Taking advantage of the recent development of genetically-defined photo-activatable actuator molecules, cellular functions, including gene expression, can be controlled by exposure to light. Such optogenetic strategies enable precise temporal and spatial manipulation of targeted single cells or groups of cells at a level hitherto impossible. In this review, we introduce light-controllable gene expression systems exploiting blue or red/far-red wavelengths and discuss their inherent properties potentially affecting induced downstream gene expression patterns. We also discuss recent advances in optical devices that will extend the application of optical gene expression control technologies into many different areas of biology and medicine.
17.

Light Control of Gene Expression Dynamics.

blue red Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Adv Exp Med Biol, 6 Jan 2020 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-8763-4_14 Link to full text
Abstract: The progress in live-cell imaging technologies has revealed diverse dynamic patterns of transcriptional activity in various contexts. The discovery raised a next question of whether the gene expression patterns play causative roles in triggering specific biological events or not. Here, we introduce optogenetic methods that realize optical control of gene expression dynamics in mammalian cells and would be utilized for answering the question, by referring the past, the present, and the future.
18.

Photoreaction Mechanisms of Flavoprotein Photoreceptors and Their Applications.

blue red BLUF domains Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Adv Exp Med Biol, 6 Jan 2020 DOI: 10.1007/978-981-15-8763-4_11 Link to full text
Abstract: Three classes of flavoprotein photoreceptors, cryptochromes (CRYs), light-oxygen-voltage (LOV)-domain proteins, and blue light using FAD (BLUF)-domain proteins, have been identified that control various physiological processes in multiple organisms. Accordingly, signaling activities of photoreceptors have been intensively studied and the related mechanisms have been exploited in numerous optogenetic tools. Herein, we summarize the current understanding of photoactivation mechanisms of the flavoprotein photoreceptors and review their applications.
19.

Engineered BRET-Based Biologic Light Sources Enable Spatiotemporal Control over Diverse Optogenetic Systems.

blue CRY2/CIB1 FKF1/GI iLID Magnets HEK293T HeLa in vitro Extracellular optogenetics
ACS Synth Biol, 17 Dec 2019 DOI: 10.1021/acssynbio.9b00277 Link to full text
Abstract: Light-inducible optogenetic systems offer precise spatiotemporal control over a myriad of biologic processes. Unfortunately, current systems are inherently limited by their dependence on external light sources for their activation. Further, the utility of laser/LED-based illumination strategies are often constrained by the need for invasive surgical procedures to deliver such devices and local heat production, photobleaching and phototoxicity that compromises cell and tissue viability. To overcome these limitations, we developed a novel BRET-activated optogenetics (BEACON) system that employs biologic light to control optogenetic tools. BEACON is driven by self-illuminating bioluminescent-fluorescent proteins that generate "spectrally tuned" biologic light via bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). Notably, BEACON robustly activates a variety of commonly used optogenetic systems in a spatially restricted fashion, and at physiologically relevant time scales, to levels that are achieved by conventional laser/LED light sources.
20.

Optogenetic control of mesenchymal cell fate towards precise bone regeneration.

blue FKF1/GI HEK293 rat in vivo rat primary mesenchymal stem cells Transgene expression Cell differentiation
Theranostics, 18 Oct 2019 DOI: 10.7150/thno.36455 Link to full text
Abstract: Rationale: Spatial-temporal control of cell fate in vivo is of great importance for regenerative medicine. Currently, there remain no practical strategies to tune cell-fate spatial-temporally. Optogenetics is a biological technique that widely used to control cell activity in genetically defined neurons in a spatiotemporal-specific manner by light. In this study, optogenetics was repurposed for precise bone tissue regeneration. Methods: Lhx8 and BMP2 genes, which are considered as the master genes for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation respectively, were recombined into a customized optogenetic control system. In the system, Lhx8 was constitutively expressed, while BMP2 together with shLhx8 expression was driven by blue light. Results: As expected, blue light induced BMP2 expression and inactivated Lhx8 expression in cells infected with the optogenetic control system. Optogenetic control of BMP2 and Lhx8 expression inversely regulates MSC fate in vitro. By animal study, we found that blue light could fine-tune the regeneration in vivo. Blue light illumination significantly promotes bone regeneration when the scaffold was loaded with MSCs infected with adeno-Lhx8, GI-Gal4DBD, LOV-VP16, and BMP2-shLhx8. Conclusions: Together, our study revealed that optogenetic control of the master genes for mesenchymal stem cell proliferation and differentiation would be such a candidate strategy for precise regenerative medicine.
21.

Optogenetics sheds new light on tissue engineering and regenerative medicine.

blue cyan green near-infrared red UV Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Biomaterials, 16 Oct 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.biomaterials.2019.119546 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetics has demonstrated great potential in the fields of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, from basic research to clinical applications. Spatiotemporal encoding during individual development has been widely identified and is considered a novel strategy for regeneration. A as a noninvasive method with high spatiotemporal resolution, optogenetics are suitable for this strategy. In this review, we discuss roles of dynamic signal coding in cell physiology and embryonic development. Several optogenetic systems are introduced as ideal optogenetic tools, and their features are compared. In addition, potential applications of optogenetics for tissue engineering are discussed, including light-controlled genetic engineering and regulation of signaling pathways. Furthermore, we present how emerging biomaterials and photoelectric technologies have greatly promoted the clinical application of optogenetics and inspired new concepts for optically controlled therapies. Our summation of currently available data conclusively demonstrates that optogenetic tools are a promising method for elucidating and simulating developmental processes, thus providing vast prospects for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine applications.
22.

Light-induced dimerization approaches to control cellular processes.

blue cyan green near-infrared red UV Cobalamin-binding domains Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Chemistry, 15 Jul 2019 DOI: 10.1002/chem.201900562 Link to full text
Abstract: Light-inducible approaches provide means to control biological systems with spatial and temporal resolution that is unmatched by traditional genetic perturbations. Recent developments of optogenetic and chemo-optogenetic systems for induced proximity in cells facilitate rapid and reversible manipulation of highly dynamic cellular processes and have become valuable tools in diverse biological applications. The new expansions of the toolbox facilitate control of signal transduction, genome editing, 'painting' patterns of active molecules onto cellular membranes and light-induced cell cycle control. A combination of light- and chemically induced dimerization approaches has also seen interesting progress. Here we provide an overview of the optogenetic systems and the emerging chemo-optogenetic systems, and discuss recent applications in tackling complex biological problems.
23.

Optically inducible membrane recruitment and signaling systems.

blue cyan near-infrared Cryptochromes Fluorescent proteins LOV domains Phytochromes Review
Curr Opin Struct Biol, 15 Mar 2019 DOI: 10.1016/j.sbi.2019.01.017 Link to full text
Abstract: Optical induction of intracellular signaling by membrane-associated and integral membrane proteins allows spatiotemporally precise control over second messenger signaling and cytoskeletal rearrangements that are important to cell migration, development, and proliferation. Optogenetic membrane recruitment of a protein-of-interest to control its signaling by altering subcellular localization is a versatile means to these ends. Here, we summarize the signaling characteristics and underlying structure-function of RGS-LOV photoreceptors as single-component membrane recruitment tools that rapidly, reversibly, and efficiently carry protein cargo from the cytoplasm to the plasma membrane by a light-regulated electrostatic interaction with the membrane itself. We place the technology-relevant features of these recently described natural photosensory proteins in context of summarized protein engineering and design strategies for optically controlling membrane protein signaling.
24.

Perspective Tools for Optogenetics and Photopharmacology: From Design to Implementation.

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Prog Photon Sci, 24 Jan 2019 DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-05974-3_8 Link to full text
Abstract: Optogenetics and photopharmacology are two perspective modern methodologies for control and monitoring of biological processes from an isolated cell to complex cell assemblies and organisms. Both methodologies use optically active components that being introduced into the cells of interest allow for optical control or monitoring of different cellular processes. In optogenetics, genetic materials are introduced into the cells to express light-sensitive proteins or protein constructs. In photopharmacology, photochromic compounds are delivered into a cell directly but not produced inside the cell from a genetic material. The development of both optogenetics and photopharmacology is inseparable from the design of improved tools (protein constructs or organic molecules) optimized for specific applications. Herein, we review the main tools that are used in modern optogenetics and photopharmaclogy and describe the types of cellular processes that can be controlled by these tools. Although a large number of different kinds of optogenetic tools exist, their performance can be evaluated with a limited number of metrics that have to be optimized for specific applications.We classify thesemetrics and describe the ways of their improvement.
25.

Bringing Light to Transcription: The Optogenetics Repertoire.

blue red UV Cryptochromes LOV domains Phytochromes UV receptors Review
Front Genet, 2 Nov 2018 DOI: 10.3389/fgene.2018.00518 Link to full text
Abstract: The ability to manipulate expression of exogenous genes in particular regions of living organisms has profoundly transformed the way we study biomolecular processes involved in both normal development and disease. Unfortunately, most of the classical inducible systems lack fine spatial and temporal accuracy, thereby limiting the study of molecular events that strongly depend on time, duration of activation, or cellular localization. By exploiting genetically engineered photo sensing proteins that respond to specific wavelengths, we can now provide acute control of numerous molecular activities with unprecedented precision. In this review, we present a comprehensive breakdown of all of the current optogenetic systems adapted to regulate gene expression in both unicellular and multicellular organisms. We focus on the advantages and disadvantages of these different tools and discuss current and future challenges in the successful translation to more complex organisms.
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