Showing 26 - 50 of 57 results
Genetically Encoded Photoactuators and Photosensors for Characterization and Manipulation of Pluripotent Stem Cells.
Our knowledge of pluripotent stem cell biology has advanced considerably in the past four decades, but it has yet to deliver on the great promise of regenerative medicine. The slow progress can be mainly attributed to our incomplete understanding of the complex biologic processes regulating the dynamic developmental pathways from pluripotency to fully-differentiated states of functional somatic cells. Much of the difficulty arises from our lack of specific tools to query, or manipulate, the molecular scale circuitry on both single-cell and organismal levels. Fortunately, the last two decades of progress in the field of optogenetics have produced a variety of genetically encoded, light-mediated tools that enable visualization and control of the spatiotemporal regulation of cellular function. The merging of optogenetics and pluripotent stem cell biology could thus be an important step toward realization of the clinical potential of pluripotent stem cells. In this review, we have surveyed available genetically encoded photoactuators and photosensors, a rapidly expanding toolbox, with particular attention to those with utility for studying pluripotent stem cells.
PhiReX: a programmable and red light-regulated protein expression switch for yeast.
Highly regulated induction systems enabling dose-dependent and reversible fine-tuning of protein expression output are beneficial for engineering complex biosynthetic pathways. To address this, we developed PhiReX, a novel red/far-red light-regulated protein expression system for use in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PhiReX is based on the combination of a customizable synTALE DNA-binding domain, the VP64 activation domain and the light-sensitive dimerization of the photoreceptor PhyB and its interacting partner PIF3 from Arabidopsis thaliana. Robust gene expression and high protein levels are achieved by combining genome integrated red light-sensing components with an episomal high-copy reporter construct. The gene of interest as well as the synTALE DNA-binding domain can be easily exchanged, allowing the flexible regulation of any desired gene by targeting endogenous or heterologous promoter regions. To allow low-cost induction of gene expression for industrial fermentation processes, we engineered yeast to endogenously produce the chromophore required for the effective dimerization of PhyB and PIF3. Time course experiments demonstrate high-level induction over a period of at least 48 h.
At Light Speed: Advances in Optogenetic Systems for Regulating Cell Signaling and Behavior.
Cells are bombarded by extrinsic signals that dynamically change in time and space. Such dynamic variations can exert profound effects on behaviors, including cellular signaling, organismal development, stem cell differentiation, normal tissue function, and disease processes such as cancer. Although classical genetic tools are well suited to introduce binary perturbations, new approaches have been necessary to investigate how dynamic signal variation may regulate cell behavior. This fundamental question is increasingly being addressed with optogenetics, a field focused on engineering and harnessing light-sensitive proteins to interface with cellular signaling pathways. Channelrhodopsins initially defined optogenetics; however, through recent use of light-responsive proteins with myriad spectral and functional properties, practical applications of optogenetics currently encompass cell signaling, subcellular localization, and gene regulation. Now, important questions regarding signal integration within branch points of signaling networks, asymmetric cell responses to spatially restricted signals, and effects of signal dosage versus duration can be addressed. This review summarizes emerging technologies and applications within the expanding field of optogenetics.
Optogenetic Modulation of Intracellular Signalling and Transcription: Focus on Neuronal Plasticity.
Several fields in neuroscience have been revolutionized by the advent of optogenetics, a technique that offers the possibility to modulate neuronal physiology in response to light stimulation. This innovative and far-reaching tool provided unprecedented spatial and temporal resolution to explore the activity of neural circuits underlying cognition and behaviour. With an exponential growth in the discovery and synthesis of new photosensitive actuators capable of modulating neuronal networks function, other fields in biology are experiencing a similar re-evolution. Here, we review the various optogenetic toolboxes developed to influence cellular physiology as well as the diverse ways in which these can be engineered to precisely modulate intracellular signalling and transcription. We also explore the processes required to successfully express and stimulate these photo-actuators in vivo before discussing how such tools can enlighten our understanding of neuronal plasticity at the systems level.
Near-Infrared Fluorescent Proteins, Biosensors, and Optogenetic Tools Engineered from Phytochromes.
Phytochrome photoreceptors absorb far-red and near-infrared (NIR) light and regulate light responses in plants, fungi, and bacteria. Their multidomain structure and autocatalytic incorporation of linear tetrapyrrole chromophores make phytochromes attractive molecular templates for the development of light-sensing probes. A subclass of bacterial phytochromes (BphPs) utilizes heme-derived biliverdin tetrapyrrole, which is ubiquitous in mammalian tissues, as a chromophore. Because biliverdin possesses the largest electron-conjugated chromophore system among linear tetrapyrroles, BphPs exhibit the most NIR-shifted spectra that reside within the NIR tissue transparency window. Here we analyze phytochrome structure and photochemistry to describe the molecular mechanisms by which they function. We then present strategies to engineer BphP-based NIR fluorescent proteins and review their properties and applications in modern imaging technologies. We next summarize designs of reporters and biosensors and describe their use in the detection of protein-protein interactions, proteolytic activities, and posttranslational modifications. Finally, we provide an overview of optogenetic tools developed from phytochromes and describe their use in light-controlled cell signaling, gene expression, and protein localization. Our review provides guidelines for the selection of NIR probes and tools for noninvasive imaging, sensing, and light-manipulation applications, specifically focusing on probes developed for use in mammalian cells and in vivo.
The rise of photoresponsive protein technologies applications in vivo: a spotlight on zebrafish developmental and cell biology.
The zebrafish ( Danio rerio) is a powerful vertebrate model to study cellular and developmental processes in vivo. The optical clarity and their amenability to genetic manipulation make zebrafish a model of choice when it comes to applying optical techniques involving genetically encoded photoresponsive protein technologies. In recent years, a number of fluorescent protein and optogenetic technologies have emerged that allow new ways to visualize, quantify, and perturb developmental dynamics. Here, we explain the principles of these new tools and describe some of their representative applications in zebrafish.
Modular engineering of cellular signaling proteins and networks.
Living cells respond to their environment using networks of signaling molecules that act as sensors, information processors, and actuators. These signaling systems are highly modular at both the molecular and network scales, and much evidence suggests that evolution has harnessed this modularity to rewire and generate new physiological behaviors. Conversely, we are now finding that, following nature's example, signaling modules can be recombined to form synthetic tools for monitoring, interrogating, and controlling the behavior of cells. Here we highlight recent progress in the modular design of synthetic receptors, optogenetic switches, and phospho-regulated proteins and circuits, and discuss the expanding role of combinatorial design in the engineering of cellular signaling proteins and networks.
Synthetic strategies for plant signalling studies: molecular toolbox and orthogonal platforms.
Plants deploy a wide array of signalling networks integrating environmental cues with growth, defence and developmental responses. The high level of complexity, redundancy and connection between several pathways hampers a comprehensive understanding of involved functional and regulatory mechanisms. The implementation of synthetic biology approaches is revolutionizing experimental biology in prokaryotes, yeasts and animal systems and can likewise contribute to a new era in plant biology. This review gives an overview on synthetic biology approaches for the development and implementation of synthetic molecular tools and techniques to interrogate, understand and control signalling events in plants, ranging from strategies for the targeted manipulation of plant genomes up to the spatiotemporally resolved control of gene expression using optogenetic approaches. We also describe strategies based on the partial reconstruction of signalling pathways in orthogonal platforms, like yeast, animal and in vitro systems. This allows a targeted analysis of individual signalling hubs devoid of interconnectivity with endogenous interacting components. Implementation of the interdisciplinary synthetic biology tools and strategies is not exempt of challenges and hardships but simultaneously most rewarding in terms of the advances in basic and applied research. As witnessed in other areas, these original theoretical-experimental avenues will lead to a breakthrough in the ability to study and comprehend plant signalling networks.
Signalling to the nucleus under the control of light and small molecules.
One major regulatory mechanism in cell signalling is the spatio-temporal control of the localization of signalling molecules. We synthetically designed an entire cell signalling pathway, which allows controlling the transport of signalling molecules from the plasma membrane to the nucleus, by using light and small molecules.
Iterative experiment design guides the characterization of a light-inducible gene expression circuit.
Systems biology rests on the idea that biological complexity can be better unraveled through the interplay of modeling and experimentation. However, the success of this approach depends critically on the informativeness of the chosen experiments, which is usually unknown a priori. Here, we propose a systematic scheme based on iterations of optimal experiment design, flow cytometry experiments, and Bayesian parameter inference to guide the discovery process in the case of stochastic biochemical reaction networks. To illustrate the benefit of our methodology, we apply it to the characterization of an engineered light-inducible gene expression circuit in yeast and compare the performance of the resulting model with models identified from nonoptimal experiments. In particular, we compare the parameter posterior distributions and the precision to which the outcome of future experiments can be predicted. Moreover, we illustrate how the identified stochastic model can be used to determine light induction patterns that make either the average amount of protein or the variability in a population of cells follow a desired profile. Our results show that optimal experiment design allows one to derive models that are accurate enough to precisely predict and regulate the protein expression in heterogeneous cell populations over extended periods of time.
Red Light-Regulated Reversible Nuclear Localization of Proteins in Mammalian Cells and Zebrafish.
Protein trafficking in and out of the nucleus represents a key step in controlling cell fate and function. Here we report the development of a red light-inducible and far-red light-reversible synthetic system for controlling nuclear localization of proteins in mammalian cells and zebrafish. First, we synthetically reconstructed and validated the red light-dependent Arabidopsis phytochrome B nuclear import mediated by phytochrome-interacting factor 3 in a nonplant environment and support current hypotheses on the import mechanism in planta. On the basis of this principle we next regulated nuclear import and activity of target proteins by the spatiotemporal projection of light patterns. A synthetic transcription factor was translocated into the nucleus of mammalian cells and zebrafish to drive transgene expression. These data demonstrate the first in vivo application of a plant phytochrome-based optogenetic tool in vertebrates and expand the repertoire of available light-regulated molecular devices.
Subcellular optogenetics - controlling signaling and single-cell behavior.
Variation in signaling activity across a cell plays a crucial role in processes such as cell migration. Signaling activity specific to organelles within a cell also likely plays a key role in regulating cellular functions. To understand how such spatially confined signaling within a cell regulates cell behavior, tools that exert experimental control over subcellular signaling activity are required. Here, we discuss the advantages of using optogenetic approaches to achieve this control. We focus on a set of optical triggers that allow subcellular control over signaling through the activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs), receptor tyrosine kinases and downstream signaling proteins, as well as those that inhibit endogenous signaling proteins. We also discuss the specific insights with regard to signaling and cell behavior that these subcellular optogenetic approaches can provide.
Benchmarking of optical dimerizer systems.
Optical dimerizers are a powerful new class of optogenetic tools that allow light-inducible control of protein-protein interactions. Such tools have been useful for regulating cellular pathways and processes with high spatiotemporal resolution in live cells, and a growing number of dimerizer systems are available. As these systems have been characterized by different groups using different methods, it has been difficult for users to compare their properties. Here, we set about to systematically benchmark the properties of four optical dimerizer systems, CRY2/CIB1, TULIPs, phyB/PIF3, and phyB/PIF6. Using a yeast transcriptional assay, we find significant differences in light sensitivity and fold-activation levels between the red light regulated systems but similar responses between the CRY2/CIB and TULIP systems. Further comparison of the ability of the CRY2/CIB1 and TULIP systems to regulate a yeast MAPK signaling pathway also showed similar responses, with slightly less background activity in the dark observed with CRY2/CIB. In the process of developing this work, we also generated an improved blue-light-regulated transcriptional system using CRY2/CIB in yeast. In addition, we demonstrate successful application of the CRY2/CIB dimerizers using a membrane-tethered CRY2, which may allow for better local control of protein interactions. Taken together, this work allows for a better understanding of the capacities of these different dimerization systems and demonstrates new uses of these dimerizers to control signaling and transcription in yeast.
Optogenetic approaches to cell migration and beyond.
Optogenetics, the use of genetically encoded tools to control protein function with light, can generate localized changes in signaling within living cells and animals. For years it has been focused on channel proteins for neurobiology, but has recently expanded to cover many different types of proteins, using a broad array of different protein engineering approaches. These methods have largely been directed at proteins involved in motility, cytoskeletal regulation and gene expression. This review provides a survey of non-channel proteins that have been engineered for optogenetics. Existing molecules are used to illustrate the advantages and disadvantages of the many imaginative new approaches that the reader can use to create light-controlled proteins.
Illuminating cell signalling with optogenetic tools.
The light-based control of ion channels has been transformative for the neurosciences, but the optogenetic toolkit does not stop there. An expanding number of proteins and cellular functions have been shown to be controlled by light, and the practical considerations in deciding between reversible optogenetic systems (such as systems that use light-oxygen-voltage domains, phytochrome proteins, cryptochrome proteins and the fluorescent protein Dronpa) are well defined. The field is moving beyond proof of concept to answering real biological questions, such as how cell signalling is regulated in space and time, that were difficult or impossible to address with previous tools.
Crystal structure of the photosensing module from a red/far-red light-absorbing plant phytochrome.
Many aspects of plant photomorphogenesis are controlled by the phytochrome (Phy) family of bilin-containing photoreceptors that detect red and far-red light by photointerconversion between a dark-adapted Pr state and a photoactivated Pfr state. Whereas 3D models of prokaryotic Phys are available, models of their plant counterparts have remained elusive. Here, we present the crystal structure of the photosensing module (PSM) from a seed plant Phy in the Pr state using the PhyB isoform from Arabidopsis thaliana. The PhyB PSM crystallized as a head-to-head dimer with strong structural homology to its bacterial relatives, including a 5(Z)syn, 10(Z)syn, 15(Z)anti configuration of the phytochromobilin chromophore buried within the cGMP phosphodiesterase/adenylyl cyclase/FhlA (GAF) domain, and a well-ordered hairpin protruding from the Phy-specific domain toward the bilin pocket. However, its Per/Arnt/Sim (PAS) domain, knot region, and helical spine show distinct structural differences potentially important to signaling. Included is an elongated helical spine, an extended β-sheet connecting the GAF domain and hairpin stem, and unique interactions between the region upstream of the PAS domain knot and the bilin A and B pyrrole rings. Comparisons of this structure with those from bacterial Phys combined with mutagenic studies support a toggle model for photoconversion that engages multiple features within the PSM to stabilize the Pr and Pfr end states after rotation of the D pyrrole ring. Taken together, this Arabidopsis PhyB structure should enable molecular insights into plant Phy signaling and provide an essential scaffold to redesign their activities for agricultural benefit and as optogenetic reagents.
Phosphorylation of phytochrome B inhibits light-induced signaling via accelerated dark reversion in Arabidopsis.
The photoreceptor phytochrome B (phyB) interconverts between the biologically active Pfr (λmax = 730 nm) and inactive Pr (λmax = 660 nm) forms in a red/far-red-dependent fashion and regulates, as molecular switch, many aspects of light-dependent development in Arabidopsis thaliana. phyB signaling is launched by the biologically active Pfr conformer and mediated by specific protein-protein interactions between phyB Pfr and its downstream regulatory partners, whereas conversion of Pfr to Pr terminates signaling. Here, we provide evidence that phyB is phosphorylated in planta at Ser-86 located in the N-terminal domain of the photoreceptor. Analysis of phyB-9 transgenic plants expressing phospho-mimic and nonphosphorylatable phyB-yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) fusions demonstrated that phosphorylation of Ser-86 negatively regulates all physiological responses tested. The Ser86Asp and Ser86Ala substitutions do not affect stability, photoconversion, and spectral properties of the photoreceptor, but light-independent relaxation of the phyB(Ser86Asp) Pfr into Pr, also termed dark reversion, is strongly enhanced both in vivo and in vitro. Faster dark reversion attenuates red light-induced nuclear import and interaction of phyB(Ser86Asp)-YFP Pfr with the negative regulator PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR3 compared with phyB-green fluorescent protein. These data suggest that accelerated inactivation of the photoreceptor phyB via phosphorylation of Ser-86 represents a new paradigm for modulating phytochrome-controlled signaling.
Phytochrome signaling in green Arabidopsis seedlings: impact assessment of a mutually negative phyB-PIF feedback loop.
The reversibly red (R)/far-red (FR)-light-responsive phytochrome (phy) photosensory system initiates both the deetiolation process in dark-germinated seedlings upon first exposure to light, and the shade-avoidance process in fully deetiolated seedlings upon exposure to vegetational shade. The intracellular signaling pathway from the light-activated photoreceptor conformer (Pfr) to the transcriptional network that drives these responses involves direct, physical interaction of Pfr with a small subfamily of bHLH transcription factors, termed Phy-Interacting Factors (PIFs), which induces rapid PIF proteolytic degradation. In addition, there is evidence of further complexity in light-grown seedlings, whereby phyB-PIF interaction reciprocally induces phyB degradation, in a mutually-negative, feedback-loop configuration. Here, to assess the relative contributions of these antagonistic activities to the net phenotypic readout in light-grown seedlings, we have examined the magnitude of the light- and simulated-shade-induced responses of a pentuple phyBpif1pif3pif4pif5 (phyBpifq) mutant and various multiple pif-mutant combinations. The data (1) reaffirm that phyB is the predominant, if not exclusive, photoreceptor imposing the inhibition of hypocotyl elongation in deetiolating seedlings in response to prolonged continuous R irradiation and (2) show that the PIF quartet (PIF1, PIF3, PIF4, and PIF5) retain and exert a dual capacity to modulate hypocotyl elongation under these conditions, by concomitantly promoting cell elongation through intrinsic transcriptional-regulatory activity, and reducing phyB-inhibitory capacity through feedback-loop-induced phyB degradation. In shade-exposed seedlings, immunoblot analysis shows that the shade-imposed reduction in Pfr levels induces increases in the abundance of PIF3, and mutant analysis indicates that PIF3 acts, in conjunction with PIF4 and PIF5, to promote the known shade-induced acceleration of hypocotyl elongation. Conversely, although the quadruple pifq mutant displays clearly reduced hypocotyl elongation compared to wild-type in response to prolonged shade, immunoblot analysis detects no elevation in phyB levels in the mutant seedlings compared to the wild-type during the majority of the shade-induced growth period, and phyB levels are not robustly correlated with the growth phenotype across the pif-mutant combinations compared. These results suggest that PIF feedback modulation of phyB abundance does not play a dominant role in modulating the magnitude of the PIF-promoted, shade-responsive phenotype under these conditions. In seedlings grown under diurnal light-dark cycles, the data show that FR-pulse-induced removal of Pfr at the beginning of the dark period (End-of-Day-FR (EOD-FR) treatment) results in longer hypocotyls relative to no EOD-FR treatment and that this effect is attenuated in the pif-mutant combinations tested. This result similarly indicates that the PIF quartet members are capable of intrinsically promoting hypocotyl cell elongation in light-grown plants, independently of the effects of PIF feedback modulation of photoactivated-phyB abundance.
Manipulating cellular processes using optical control of protein-protein interactions.
Tools for optical control of proteins offer an unprecedented level of spatiotemporal control over biological processes, adding a new layer of experimental opportunity. While use of light-activated cation channels and anion pumps has already revolutionized neurobiology, an emerging class of more general optogenetic tools may have similar transformative effects. These tools consist of light-dependent protein interaction modules that allow control of target protein interactions and localization with light. Such tools are modular and can be applied to regulate a wide variety of biological activities. This chapter reviews the different properties of light-induced dimerization systems, based on plant phytochromes, cryptochromes, and light-oxygen-voltage domain proteins, exploring advantages and limitations of the different systems and practical considerations related to their use. Potential applications of these tools within the neurobiology field, including light control of various signaling pathways, neuronal activity, and DNA recombination and transcription, are discussed.
The use of light for engineered control and reprogramming of cellular functions.
Could combating incurable diseases lie in something as simple as light? This scenario might not be too farfetched due to groundbreaking research in optogenetics. This novel scientific area, where genetically encoded photosensors transform light energy into specifically engineered biological processes, has shown enormous potential. Cell morphology can be changed, signaling pathways can be reprogrammed, and gene expression can be regulated all by the control of light. In biomedical applications where precise cell targeting is essential, non-invasive light has shown great promise. This article provides a summary of the recent advances that utilize light in genetic programming and precise control of engineered biological functions.
In silico feedback for in vivo regulation of a gene expression circuit.
We show that difficulties in regulating cellular behavior with synthetic biological circuits may be circumvented using in silico feedback control. By tracking a circuit's output in Saccharomyces cerevisiae in real time, we precisely control its behavior using an in silico feedback algorithm to compute regulatory inputs implemented through a genetically encoded light-responsive module. Moving control functions outside the cell should enable more sophisticated manipulation of cellular processes whenever real-time measurements of cellular variables are possible.
Diverse two-cysteine photocycles in phytochromes and cyanobacteriochromes.
Phytochromes are well-known as photoactive red- and near IR-absorbing chromoproteins with cysteine-linked linear tetrapyrrole (bilin) prosthetic groups. Phytochrome photoswitching regulates adaptive responses to light in both photosynthetic and nonphotosynthetic organisms. Exclusively found in cyanobacteria, the related cyanobacteriochrome (CBCR) sensors extend the photosensory range of the phytochrome superfamily to shorter wavelengths of visible light. Blue/green light sensing by a well-studied subfamily of CBCRs proceeds via a photolabile thioether linkage to a second cysteine fully conserved in this subfamily. In the present study, we show that dual-cysteine photosensors have repeatedly evolved in cyanobacteria via insertion of a second cysteine at different positions within the bilin-binding GAF domain (cGMP-specific phosphodiesterases, cyanobacterial adenylate cyclases, and formate hydrogen lyase transcription activator FhlA) shared by CBCRs and phytochromes. Such sensors exhibit a diverse range of photocycles, yet all share ground-state absorbance of near-UV to blue light and a common mechanism of light perception: reversible photoisomerization of the bilin 15,16 double bond. Using site-directed mutagenesis, chemical modification and spectroscopy to characterize novel dual-cysteine photosensors from the cyanobacterium Nostoc punctiforme ATCC 29133, we establish that this spectral diversity can be tuned by varying the light-dependent stability of the second thioether linkage. We also show that such behavior can be engineered into the conventional phytochrome Cph1 from Synechocystis sp. PCC6803. Dual-cysteine photosensors thus allow the phytochrome superfamily in cyanobacteria to sense the full solar spectrum at the earth surface from near infrared to near ultraviolet.
Lights on and action! Controlling microbial gene expression by light.
Light-mediated control of gene expression and thus of any protein function and metabolic process in living microbes is a rapidly developing field of research in the areas of functional genomics, systems biology, and biotechnology. The unique physical properties of the environmental factor light allow for an independent photocontrol of various microbial processes in a noninvasive and spatiotemporal fashion. This mini review describes recently developed strategies to generate photo-sensitive expression systems in bacteria and yeast. Naturally occurring and artificial photoswitches consisting of light-sensitive input domains derived from different photoreceptors and regulatory output domains are presented and individual properties of light-controlled expression systems are discussed.
An integrative model for phytochrome B mediated photomorphogenesis: from protein dynamics to physiology.
Plants have evolved various sophisticated mechanisms to respond and adapt to changes of abiotic factors in their natural environment. Light is one of the most important abiotic environmental factors and it regulates plant growth and development throughout their entire life cycle. To monitor the intensity and spectral composition of the ambient light environment, plants have evolved multiple photoreceptors, including the red/far-red light-sensing phytochromes.
A light-independent allele of phytochrome B faithfully recapitulates photomorphogenic transcriptional networks.
Dominant gain-of-function alleles of Arabidopsis phytochrome B were recently shown to confer light-independent, constitutive photomorphogenic (cop) phenotypes to transgenic plants (Su and Lagarias, 2007). In the present study, comparative transcription profiling experiments were performed to assess whether the pattern of gene expression regulated by these alleles accurately reflects the process of photomorphogenesis in wild-type Arabidopsis. Whole-genome transcription profiles of dark-grown phyAphyB seedlings expressing the Y276H mutant of phyB (YHB) revealed that YHB reprograms about 13% of the Arabidopsis transcriptome in a light-independent manner. The YHB-regulated transcriptome proved qualitatively similar to but quantitatively greater than those of wild-type seedlings grown under 15 or 50 micromol m(-2) m(-1) continuous red light (Rc). Among the 2977 genes statistically significant two-fold (SSTF) regulated by YHB in the absence of light include those encoding components of the photosynthetic apparatus, tetrapyrrole/pigment biosynthetic pathways, and early light-responsive signaling factors. Approximately 80% of genes SSTF regulated by Rc were also YHB-regulated. Expression of a notable subset of 346 YHB-regulated genes proved to be strongly attenuated by Rc, indicating compensating regulation by phyC-E and/or other Rc-dependent processes. Since the majority of these 346 genes are regulated by the circadian clock, these results suggest that phyA- and phyB-independent light signaling pathway(s) strongly influence clock output. Together with the unique plastid morphology of dark-grown YHB seedlings, these analyses indicate that the YHB mutant induces constitutive photomorphogenesis via faithful reconstruction of phyB signaling pathways in a light-independent fashion.