Turning Cell Adhesions ON or OFF with High Spatiotemporal Precision Using the Green Light Responsive Protein CarH.
Abstract: Spatiotemporal control of integrin-mediated cell adhesions to extracellular matrix regulates cell behavior with has numerous implications for biotechnological applications. In this work, two approaches for regulating cell adhesions in space and time with high precision are reported, both of which utilize green light. In the first design, CarH, which is a tetramer in the dark, is used to mask cRGD adhesion-peptides on a surface. Upon green light illumination, the CarH tetramer dissociates into its monomers, revealing the adhesion peptide so that cells can adhere. In the second design, the RGD motif is incorporated into the CarH protein tetramer such that cells can adhere to surfaces functionalized with this protein. The cell adhesions can be disrupted with green light, due to the disassembly of the CarH-RGD protein. Both designs allow for photoregulation with noninvasive visible light and open new possibilities to investigate the dynamical regulation of cell adhesions in cell biology.