Photoreceptor EL222
Binding partner /
Cofactor FMN
Source organism Erythrobacter litoralis
Mode of action homodimerization, DNA binding
Excitation wavelength 450 nm
Reversion wavelength dark
Excitation time seconds
Reversion time seconds
Crystal structure of EL222, ground state (i.e. monomer). (PDB ID: 3P7N)

Related original publications

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  1. Dynamic Multiplexed Control and Modeling of Optogenetic Systems Using the High-Throughput Optogenetic Platform, Lustro. ACS Synth Biol, 2024
  2. Light-directed evolution of dynamic, multi-state, and computational protein functionalities. bioRxiv, 2024
  3. Optogenetic control of pheromone gradients reveals functional limits of mating behavior in budding yeast. bioRxiv, 2024
  4. Light inducible protein degradation in E. coli with the LOVdeg tag. Elife, 2024
  5. Multicolor optogenetics for regulating flux ratio of three glycolytic pathways using EL222 and CcaSR in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol Bioeng, 2023
  6. Light induced expression of gRNA allows for optogenetic gene editing of T lymphocytes in vivo. bioRxiv, 2023
  7. Diya – a universal light illumination platform for multiwell plate cultures. iScience, 2023
  8. Multidimensional characterization of inducible promoters and a highly light-sensitive LOV-transcription factor. Nat Commun, 2023
  9. A Bioluminescent Activity Dependent (BLADe) Platform for Converting Neuronal Activity to Photoreceptor Activation. bioRxiv, 2023
  10. Optogenetic spatial patterning of cooperation in yeast populations. bioRxiv, 2023
  11. Optogenetic closed-loop feedback control of the unfolded protein response optimizes protein production. Metab Eng, 2023
  12. Light inducible protein degradation in E. coli with LOVtag. bioRxiv, 2023
  13. Optogenetic control of beta-carotene bioproduction in yeast across multiple lab-scales. Front Bioeng Biotechnol, 2023
  14. Maximizing protein production by keeping cells at optimal secretory stress levels using real‐time control approaches. bioRxiv, 2022
  15. Near-Infrared Nano-Optogenetic Activation of Cancer Immunotherapy via Engineered Bacteria. Adv Mater, 2022
  16. A Single-Component Blue Light-Induced System Based on EL222 in Yarrowia lipolytica. Int J Mol Sci, 2022
  17. Hydrogel microcapsules containing engineered bacteria for sustained production and release of protein drugs. Biomaterials, 2022
  18. Synthetic cells with self-activating optogenetic proteins communicate with natural cells. Nat Commun, 2022
  19. Synthetic gene networks recapitulate dynamic signal decoding and differential gene expression. Cell Syst, 2022
  20. Using single-cell models to predict the functionality of synthetic circuits at the population scale. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2022
  21. Systematic In Vivo Characterization of Fluorescent Protein Maturation in Budding Yeast. ACS Synth Biol, 2022
  22. Development of Optogenetic Dual-Switch System for Rewiring Metabolic Flux for Polyhydroxybutyrate Production. Molecules, 2022
  23. Design and Characterization of an Optogenetic System in Pichia pastoris. ACS Synth Biol, 2022
  24. A light tunable differentiation system for the creation and control of consortia in yeast. Nat Commun, 2021
  25. Rapid prototyping and design of cybergenetic single-cell controllers. Nat Commun, 2021
  26. Light-Induced GFP Expression in Zebrafish Embryos using the Optogenetic TAEL/C120 System. J Vis Exp, 2021
  27. The Neurospora crassa Inducible Q System Enables Simultaneous Optogenetic Amplification and Inversion in Saccharomyces cerevisiae for Bidirectional Control of Gene Expression. ACS Synth Biol, 2021
  28. Cellulosic biofuel production using emulsified simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (eSSF) with conventional and thermotolerant yeasts. Biotechnol Biofuels, 2021
  29. Engineered NIR light-responsive bacteria as anti-tumor agent for targeted and precise cancer therapy. Lancet Infect Dis, 2021
  30. Bioluminescent Synthetic Cells Communicate with Natural Cells and Self-Activate Light-Responsive Proteins. bioRxiv, 2021
  31. Optogenetic Amplification Circuits for Light-Induced Metabolic Control. ACS Synth Biol, 2021
  32. Blue Light‐Operated CRISPR/Cas13b‐Mediated mRNA Knockdown (Lockdown). Adv Biol, 2021
  33. TAEL 2.0: An Improved Optogenetic Expression System for Zebrafish. Zebrafish, 2021
  34. Dynamical Modeling of Optogenetic Circuits in Yeast for Metabolic Engineering Applications. ACS Synth Biol, 2021
  35. Optogenetics in Sinorhizobium meliloti Enables Spatial Control of Exopolysaccharide Production and Biofilm Structure. ACS Synth Biol, 2021
  36. An Optogenetic Platform to Dynamically Control the Stiffness of Collagen Hydrogels. ACS Biomater Sci Eng, 2020
  37. Engineering an Optogenetic CRISPRi Platform for Improved Chemical Production. ACS Synth Biol, 2020
  38. An Irf6-Esrp1/2 regulatory axis controls midface morphogenesis in vertebrates. Development, 2020
  39. Design and Characterization of Rapid Optogenetic Circuits for Dynamic Control in Yeast Metabolic Engineering. ACS Synth Biol, 2020
  40. Optogenetic Downregulation of Protein Levels to Control Programmed Cell Death in Mammalian Cells with a Dual Blue-Light Switch. Methods Mol Biol, 2020
  41. Optogenetic control of gene expression in plants in the presence of ambient white light. Nat Methods, 2020
  42. Light-powered Escherichia coli cell division for chemical production. Nat Commun, 2020
  43. Blue Light-Directed Cell Migration, Aggregation, and Patterning. J Mol Biol, 2020
  44. Optical induction of autophagy via Transcription factor EB (TFEB) reduces pathological tau in neurons. PLoS ONE, 2020
  45. Cell-in-the-loop pattern formation with optogenetically emulated cell-to-cell signaling. Nat Commun, 2020
  46. An Open-Source Plate Reader. Biochemistry, 2018
  47. Programming the Dynamic Control of Bacterial Gene Expression with a Chimeric Ligand- and Light-Based Promoter System. ACS Synth Biol, 2018
  48. Dual-controlled optogenetic system for the rapid down-regulation of protein levels in mammalian cells. Sci Rep, 2018
  49. Pulsatile inputs achieve tunable attenuation of gene expression variability and graded multi-gene regulation. Nat Commun, 2018
  50. An Optogenetic Platform for Real-Time, Single-Cell Interrogation of Stochastic Transcriptional Regulation. Mol Cell, 2018
  51. Cell-free optogenetic gene expression system. ACS Synth Biol, 2018
  52. Optogenetic regulation of engineered cellular metabolism for microbial chemical production. Nature, 2018
  53. A calcium- and light-gated switch to induce gene expression in activated neurons. Nat Biotechnol, 2017
  54. TAEL: a zebrafish-optimized optogenetic gene expression system with fine spatial and temporal control. Development, 2016
  55. Blue light-mediated transcriptional activation and repression of gene expression in bacteria. Nucleic Acids Res, 2016
  56. An optogenetic gene expression system with rapid activation and deactivation kinetics. Nat Chem Biol, 2014
  57. Blue light-induced dimerization of a bacterial LOV-HTH DNA-binding protein. Biochemistry, 2013
  58. Blue light-mediated gene expression as a promising strategy to reduce antibiotic resistance in Escherichia coli. Biotechnol J, 2024