Photoreceptor CRY2
Binding partner /
Cofactor FAD
Source organism Arabidopsis thaliana
Mode of action homooligomerization
Excitation wavelength 450 nm
Reversion wavelength dark
Excitation time seconds
Reversion time minutes
Crystal structure of CRY2. (PDB ID: 6K8I)

CRY2/CRY2-derived switches:

Related original publications

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  1. Activation of NF-κB signaling by optogenetic clustering of IKKα and β. bioRxiv, 2024
  2. Large-scale control over collective cell migration using light-controlled epidermal growth factor receptors. bioRxiv, 2024
  3. Spatiotemporal Control of Inflammatory Lytic Cell Death Through Optogenetic Induction of RIPK3 Oligomerization. J Mol Biol, 2024
  4. Ubiquitin-driven protein condensation initiates clathrin-mediated endocytosis. bioRxiv, 2024
  5. Spatiotemporal control of subcellular O-GlcNAc signaling using Opto-OGT. bioRxiv, 2024
  6. Chromatin condensates tune nuclear mechano-sensing in Kabuki Syndrome by constraining cGAS activation. bioRxiv, 2024
  7. Optogenetically controlled inflammasome activation demonstrates two phases of cell swelling during pyroptosis. Sci Signal, 2024
  8. Focal adhesion-derived liquid-liquid phase separations regulate mRNA translation. bioRxiv, 2024
  9. Optogenetic control of mRNA condensation reveals an intimate link between condensate material properties and functions. Nat Commun, 2024
  10. Engineering Material Properties of Transcription Factor Condensates to Control Gene Expression in Mammalian Cells and Mice. Small, 2024
  11. Spatial organization and functions of Chk1 activation by TopBP1 biomolecular condensates. Cell Rep, 2024
  12. Dynamic light-responsive RhoA activity regulates mechanosensitive stem cell fate decision in 3D matrices. Biomater Adv, 2024
  13. OptoProfilin: A Single Component Biosensor of Applied Cellular Stress. Chembiochem, 2024
  14. Simple visualization of submicroscopic protein clusters with a phase-separation-based fluorescent reporter. Cell Syst, 2024
  15. Rapid Optogenetic Clustering in the Cytoplasm with BcLOVclust. J Mol Biol, 2024
  16. Real-time visualization of structural dynamics of synapses in live cells in vivo. Nat Methods, 2024
  17. Optogenetic induction of caspase-8 mediated apoptosis by employing Arabidopsis cryptochrome 2. Sci Rep, 2023
  18. Regulatable assembly of synthetic microtubule architectures using engineered MAP-IDR condensates. bioRxiv, 2023
  19. AAV-compatible optogenetic tools for activating endogenous calcium channels in vivo. Mol Brain, 2023
  20. Light-induced trapping of endogenous proteins reveals spatiotemporal roles of microtubule and kinesin-1 in dendrite patterning of Drosophila sensory neurons. bioRxiv, 2023
  21. Optogenetic engineering of STING signaling allows remote immunomodulation to enhance cancer immunotherapy. Nat Commun, 2023
  22. A novel SATB1 protein isoform with different biophysical properties. Front Cell Dev Biol, 2023
  23. Optogenetic strategies for optimizing the performance of biosensors of membrane phospholipids in live cells. bioRxiv, 2023
  24. Optogenetic control of Wnt signaling models cell-intrinsic embryogenic patterning using 2D human pluripotent stem cell culture. Development, 2023
  25. Optogenetic dissection of RET signaling reveals robust activation of ERK and enhanced filopodia-like protrusions of regenerating axons. Mol Brain, 2023
  26. Sequence- and structure-specific RNA oligonucleotide binding attenuates heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein A1 dysfunction. Front Mol Biosci, 2023
  27. mRNA condensation fluidizes the cytoplasm. bioRxiv, 2023
  28. Mechanosensitive stem cell fate choice is instructed by dynamic fluctuations in activation of Rho GTPases. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2023
  29. The MAPK/ERK channel capacity exceeds 6 bit/hour. PLoS Comput Biol, 2023
  30. Optogenetic manipulation identifies the roles of ERK and AKT dynamics in controlling mouse embryonic stem cell exit from pluripotency. Dev Cell, 2023
  31. Light-stimulated insulin secretion from pancreatic islet-like organoids derived from human pluripotent stem cells. Mol Ther, 2023
  32. Interaction between PI3K and the VDAC2 channel tethers Ras-PI3K-positive endosomes to mitochondria and promotes endosome maturation. Cell Rep, 2023
  33. Enhancing Mitochondrial Functions by Optogenetic Clustering. bioRxiv, 2022
  34. Spatiotemporal control of ERK pulse frequency coordinates fate decisions during mammary acinar morphogenesis. Dev Cell, 2022
  35. Nucleation of the destruction complex on the centrosome accelerates degradation of β-catenin and regulates Wnt signal transmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2022
  36. CRY-BARs: Versatile light-gated molecular tools for the remodeling of membrane architectures. J Biol Chem, 2022
  37. LITOS: a versatile LED illumination tool for optogenetic stimulation. Sci Rep, 2022
  38. Integration of light and temperature sensing by liquid-liquid phase separation of phytochrome B. Mol Cell, 2022
  39. A non-canonical Raf function is required for dorsal-ventral patterning during Drosophila embryogenesis. Sci Rep, 2022
  40. Optical control of protein delivery and partitioning in the nucleolus. Nucleic Acids Res, 2022
  41. Oncogenic protein condensates modulate cell signal perception and drug tolerance. bioRxiv, 2022
  42. Wnt Signaling Rescues Amyloid Beta-Induced Gut Stem Cell Loss. Cells, 2022
  43. Substratum stiffness regulates Erk signaling dynamics through receptor-level control. Cell Rep, 2021
  44. Temperature-responsive optogenetic probes of cell signaling. Nat Chem Biol, 2021
  45. Stress ball morphogenesis: How the lizard builds its lung. Sci Adv, 2021
  46. Formation of nuclear condensates by the Mediator complex subunit Med15 in mammalian cells. BMC Biol, 2021
  47. Aberrant Phase Separation of FUS Leads to Lysosome Sequestering and Acidification. Front Cell Dev Biol, 2021
  48. Optogenetic-mediated cardiovascular differentiation and patterning of human pluripotent stem cells. Adv Genet (Hoboken), 2021
  49. An optogenetic proximity labeling approach to probe the composition of inducible biomolecular condensates in cultured cells. STAR Protoc, 2021
  50. Spatiotemporal sensitivity of mesoderm specification to FGFR signalling in the Drosophila embryo. Sci Rep, 2021
  51. TOR signaling regulates liquid phase separation of the SMN complex governing snRNP biogenesis. Cell Rep, 2021
  52. Positive feedback between the T cell kinase Zap70 and its substrate LAT acts as a clustering-dependent signaling switch. Cell Rep, 2021
  53. DMA-tudor interaction modules control the specificity of in vivo condensates. Cell, 2021
  54. Collective ERK/Akt activity waves orchestrate epithelial homeostasis by driving apoptosis-induced survival. Dev Cell, 2021
  55. Robustness of epithelial sealing is an emerging property of local ERK feedback driven by cell elimination. Dev Cell, 2021
  56. Optogenetic Control of the Canonical Wnt Signaling Pathway During Xenopus laevis Embryonic Development. J Mol Biol, 2021
  57. Optogenetic-induced multimerization of the dopamine transporter increases uptake and trafficking to the plasma membrane. J Biol Chem, 2021
  58. Optogenetic Control of Non-Apoptotic Cell Death. Adv Biology, 2021
  59. Optogenetic control of calcium influx in mammalian cells. Methods Enzymol, 2021
  60. Multiple Sclerosis-Associated hnRNPA1 Mutations Alter hnRNPA1 Dynamics and Influence Stress Granule Formation. Int J Mol Sci, 2021
  61. Co-condensation between transcription factor and coactivator p300 modulates transcriptional bursting kinetics. Mol Cell, 2021
  62. TopBP1 assembles nuclear condensates to switch on ATR signaling. Mol Cell, 2021
  63. Liquid-liquid phase separation of light-inducible transcription factors increases transcription activation in mammalian cells and mice. Sci Adv, 2021
  64. Engineering Supramolecular Organizing Centers for Optogenetic Control of Innate Immune Responses. Adv Biol, 2020
  65. Use of Optogenetic Amyloid-β to Monitor Protein Aggregation in Drosophila melanogaster, Danio rerio and Caenorhabditis elegans. Bio Protoc, 2020
  66. β-Catenin signaling dynamics regulate cell fate in differentiating neural stem cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A, 2020
  67. Novel culture system via wirelessly controllable optical stimulation of the FGF signaling pathway for human and pig pluripotency. Biomaterials, 2020
  68. Engineered Illumination Devices for Optogenetic Control of Cellular Signaling Dynamics. Cell Rep, 2020
  69. Optical Activation of TrkB Signaling. J Mol Biol, 2020
  70. Clustering of the ζ-Chain Can Initiate T Cell Receptor Signaling. Int J Mol Sci, 2020
  71. CLIC4 is a cytokinetic cleavage furrow protein that regulates cortical cytoskeleton stability during cell division. J Cell Sci, 2020
  72. Unblending of Transcriptional Condensates in Human Repeat Expansion Disease. Cell, 2020
  73. Dynamic Fas signaling network regulates neural stem cell proliferation and memory enhancement. Sci Adv, 2020
  74. Application of optogenetic Amyloid-β distinguishes between metabolic and physical damage in neurodegeneration. Elife, 2020
  75. An Optogenetic Method to Study Signal Transduction in Intestinal StemCell Homeostasis. J Mol Biol, 2020
  76. Optogenetic manipulation of calcium signals in single T cells in vivo. Nat Commun, 2020
  77. Optogenetic modulation of TrkB signaling in the mouse brain. J Mol Biol, 2020
  78. Non-invasive optical control of endogenous Ca2+ channels in awake mice. Nat Commun, 2020
  79. Locally Activating TrkB Receptor Generates Actin Waves and Specifies Axonal Fate. Cell Chem Biol, 2019
  80. Engineering Strategy and Vector Library for the Rapid Generation of Modular Light-Controlled Protein-Protein Interactions. J Mol Biol, 2019
  81. Light-based control of metabolic flux through assembly of synthetic organelles. Nat Chem Biol, 2019
  82. Chronic optogenetic induction of stress granules is cytotoxic and reveals the evolution of ALS-FTD pathology. Elife, 2019
  83. RNA Binding Antagonizes Neurotoxic Phase Transitions of TDP-43. Neuron, 2019
  84. Continued Activity of the Pioneer Factor Zelda Is Required to Drive Zygotic Genome Activation. Mol Cell, 2019
  85. Intensiometric biosensors visualize the activity of multiple small GTPases in vivo. Nat Commun, 2019
  86. Liquid Nuclear Condensates Mechanically Sense and Restructure the Genome. Cell, 2018
  87. Optogenetic dissection of Rac1 and Cdc42 gradient shaping. Nat Commun, 2018
  88. Optical activation of TrkA signaling. ACS Synth Biol, 2018
  89. Protein Phase Separation Provides Long-Term Memory of Transient Spatial Stimuli. Cell Syst, 2018
  90. Filopodia Conduct Target Selection in Cortical Neurons Using Differences in Signal Kinetics of a Single Kinase. Neuron, 2018
  91. Coupling optogenetics and light-sheet microscopy, a method to study Wnt signaling during embryogenesis. Sci Rep, 2017
  92. Optogenetic control of focal adhesion kinase signaling. Cell Signal, 2017
  93. Understanding CRY2 interactions for optical control of intracellular signaling. Nat Commun, 2017
  94. Decoding temporal interpretation of the morphogen Bicoid in the early Drosophila embryo. Elife, 2017
  95. Optogenetic protein clustering through fluorescent protein tagging and extension of CRY2. Nat Commun, 2017
  96. Optogenetic activation of Plexin-B1 reveals contact repulsion between osteoclasts and osteoblasts. Nat Commun, 2017
  97. Spatiotemporal Control of Intracellular Phase Transitions Using Light-Activated optoDroplets. Cell, 2016
  98. Optogenetic clustering of CNK1 reveals mechanistic insights in RAF and AKT signalling controlling cell fate decisions. Sci Rep, 2016
  99. Using HEK293T Expression System to Study Photoactive Plant Cryptochromes. Front Plant Sci, 2016
  100. Optogenetic activation of axon guidance receptors controls direction of neurite outgrowth. Sci Rep, 2016
  101. Optogenetically controlled RAF to characterize BRAF and CRAF protein kinase inhibitors. Sci Rep, 2016
  102. Optogenetic control of endogenous Ca(2+) channels in vivo. Nat Biotechnol, 2015
  103. The Dual Characteristics of Light-Induced Cryptochrome 2, Homo-oligomerization and Heterodimerization, for Optogenetic Manipulation in Mammalian Cells. ACS Synth Biol, 2015
  104. Regulation of endogenous transmembrane receptors through optogenetic Cry2 clustering. Nat Commun, 2015
  105. An optimized optogenetic clustering tool for probing protein interaction and function. Nat Commun, 2014
  106. Spatiotemporal control of fibroblast growth factor receptor signals by blue light. Chem Biol, 2014
  107. Light-inducible receptor tyrosine kinases that regulate neurotrophin signalling. Nat Commun, 2014
  108. Optogenetic control of protein kinase activity in mammalian cells. ACS Synth Biol, 2013
  109. Formation of Arabidopsis Cryptochrome 2 photobodies in mammalian nuclei: application as an optogenetic DNA damage checkpoint switch. J Biol Chem, 2013
  110. Optogenetic protein clustering and signaling activation in mammalian cells. Nat Methods, 2013
  111. Optogenetic actuator - ERK biosensor circuits identify MAPK network nodes that shape ERK dynamics. Mol Syst Biol, 2022